واژه نامه دو زبانه عربی انگلیسی مقدماتی اسلام

The following list consists of notable concepts that are derived from both Islamic and Arab tradition, which are expressed as words in the Arabic language. The main purpose of this list is to disambiguate multiple spellings, to make note of spellings no longer in use for these concepts, to define the concept in one or two lines, to make it easy for one to find and pin down specific concepts, and to provide a guide to unique concepts of Islam all in one place.
Separating concepts in Islam from concepts specific to Arab culture, or from the language itself, can be difficult. Many Arabic concepts have an Arabic secular meaning as well as an Islamic meaning. One example is the concept of dawah. Arabic, like all languages, contains words whose meanings differ across various contexts. The word Islam is itself a good example.
Arabic is written in its own alphabet, with letters, symbols, and orthographic conventions that do not have exact equivalents in the Latin alphabet (see Arabic alphabet). The following list contains transliterations of Arabic terms and phrases; variations exist, e.g. din instead of deen and aqidah instead of aqeedah. Most items in the list also contain their actual Arabic spelling.

Contents:
Top 0–9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
‘Abd (عبد)
servant, worshipper, slave. Muslims consider themselves servants and slaves of God. Common Muslim names such as Abdullah (Servant of God), Abdul-Malik (Slave of the King), Abdur-Rahmān (Slave of the most Beneficent), Abdus-Salām (Slave of Peace), all refer to names of Allah.
Adab (أدب)
Traditionally describes good manners, as in etiquette. For example, being courteous is good adab. However, the term can be used very broadly, and the proper translation would be "the proper way to go about something," as in the example, Aadaab al Qitaal, or, "The Proper Way of Fighting in War," (Qitaal in Arabic means mortal combat) in which the word "etiquette" does not befit the context. Literally meaning literature.
Adhān (أذان)
call to salat (prayer), sometimes alternatively spelled and pronounced Azan, Athan and Adhan.
‘Adl (عدل)
justice, especially distributive justice: social, economic, political, environmental.
AH
anno hegirae The Islamic calendar starts counting years starting from the time when Muhammad had to leave Mecca and go to Medina, an event known as the Hijra: July 16, 622.
Aḥad (أحد)
literally "one." Islamically, ahad means One Alone, unique, none like God. Al-Wahid is one of the names of God.
Aḥkām (أحکام)
rulings and orders of the Qu'ran and Sunnah. Five kinds of orders: Wajib, Mustahab, Muharram, Makruh, and Halal. Singular Ḥukm.
Ahl al-Bayt (أهل البیت )
members of Muhammad's Household. Also known among Shia as the Ma'sumin (infallibles; spiritually pure).
Ahl al-Faṭrah ( أهل الفطرة)
people who live in ignorance of the teachings of a revealed religion, but according to the "Fitra", the "Natural Religion" innate to human nature as created by God.
Ahl al-Kitāb (أهل الکتاب )
"People of the Book", or followers of pre-Islamic monotheistic religions with some form of scripture believed to be of divine origin which were mentioned in Quran: Jews, Christians.
Ākhirah (الآخرة)
hereafter or eternal life
Akhlāq (أخلاق)
The practice of virtue. Morals.
Al-Ikhlās (إخلاص)- Sincerety
Genuine in religious beliefs.
Al-Birr (البر)
Piety and righteousness and every act of obedience to Allah.
‘Ālamīn (عالمین)
Literally "worlds", humankind, jinn, angels and all that exists
Alayhis Salam (علیه السلام)
"Peace be upon him" This expression normally follows after naming a prophet (other than Muhammad), or one of the noble Angels (i.e. Jibreel[Gabriel], Mikaeel[Michael], etc.)
Al-Ḥamdu Lillāh or Hamdellah (الحمد لله)
"Praise be to God!" Qur'anic exclamation and also same meaning as hallelujah.
Allāh (الله)
The Arabic name of God.
Allāhumma (اللَّهُمَّ)
"O God."
Allāhu Akbar (الله أکبر)
"Allah is the Greatest." Islamic expression.
‘Ālim (عالِم)
One who knows. A scholar (in any field of knowledge); a scientist (who knows science) or a theologian (who knows religion); similar to Japanese sensei, "teacher".
Amānah (أمانة)
the trust. Of all creation, only human beings & jinns carry the "trust", which is free will.
Āmīn (آمین)
Amen, a supplication meaning, "O God, accept our invocation!".
Amīrul-Mu’minīn (أمیر المؤمنین)
In some countries like Morocco, a Amīrul-Mu’minīn or Commander of the faithful is the religious chief.
Āminah (آمنة)
Muhammad's mother. Aminah fell sick and died in Abwa, near Madina (then Yathrib) when Muhammad was six years old.
Al Amr Bi'l Maruf (الأمر بالمعروف)
Islamic doctrine of enjoining right. There exists in Islam the (obligatory) principle of encouraging other people to do the right thing.
anfal (انفال)
Property of the Imam
Anṣār (أنصار)
"Helpers." The Muslim converts at Medina who helped the Muslims from Mecca after the Hijrah.
‘Aqīdah (عقیدة)
The Islamic creed, or the six article of faith, which consists of the belief in God, Angels, Messengers and Prophets, Scriptures, the Day of Judgment, and Destiny.
Aqīqah (عقیقة)
Islamic practice of shaving the head of the newborn male and contributing the weight in silver for charity as well as 2 lambs. One lamb is slaughtered for a baby girl.
‘Aql (عقل)
Intelligence, intellect, mind, understanding
Arkān singular rukn (رکن/أرکان)
The five rukn "pillars" of Islam. (See rukn)
A.S. ('Alayhis-salām)
This acronym evokes a blessing and is appended to the names of the prophets who came before Muhammad. It will also be applied to the mothers of those prophets. When following a woman's name, the feminine form is 'Alayhas-salaam.
Aṣl ( أصل ) (pl. usool)
Root, origin, source; principle.
Aslim Taslam (أسلِم تسلَم)
"Submit to Islam" (See dawah) (See: lan astaslem)
Asmā’ Allah al-Ḥusnā (أسماء الله الحسنى)
List of God's 99 names. According to a hadith, the one who enumerates them all will enter Paradise.
‘Aṣr (العصر)
The third salat prayer. The time of the day before sunset and after noon. also means "era".
Aṣ-Ṣirāṭ (الصراط)
The bridge by crossing which it is determined (judged) whether a person would go to heaven or hell. How a person crosses the Sirat depends on what they have done in their life and what they have believed in.
al-Asharatu Mubashsharun bil-Jannah or just Asharatu Mubashsharah (Arabic
العشرة المبشّرون بالجنة or عشرة المبشّر, Transliteration: ‘Asharatul-mubashshirūn or ‘Asharatul-mubashshirūne bil Jannah): The ten companions of Muhammad who were promised paradise (only in Sunni Islam)
‘Āshūrā’ (عاشوراء)
Tenth day of the month of Muharram. It is the day God saved Moses and the children of Israel from the Pharaoh. The grandson of the prophet Muhammad, Imam Hussayn sacrificed his life along with 72 of his companions on the sand dunes of Karbala. Sunni Scholars recommended to fast during this day. To the Shias, it is also a day on which they mourn the death of the third Shia Imam, Husayn ibn Ali, along with his family and companions, who were killed in the famous battle in Karbala. They cry and weep and organize lamentating programmes where they not only learn how to live a proper Islamic life and improve their Spiritual Self but also cry at the end of the ritual to show their true love and faith towards imam Hussayn.
As-Salāmu ‘Alaykum (السلام علیکم)
The Islamic greeting; literally "Peace be upon you"; In addition, wa-Raḥmatullāhi wa-Barakātuhu (ورحمة الله وبرکاته) means "and the Mercy of God and His blessing". The response to this greeting is wa-‘Alaykum us-Salām wa-Raḥmatullāhi wa-Barakātuhu (و علیکم السلام ورحمة الله وبرکاته) --"And on you be the Peace and Mercy of God and His Blessing".
Astaghfirullāh (أستغفر الله)
"I seek forgiveness from God." Islamic expression.
A'udhu billah (أعوذ بالله ’A‘ūdhu billāh)
"I seek refuge in God". This is a paraphrase on the beginnings of the two last suras in the Qur'an.
Awliyā’ (أولیاء)
Friends, protectors, helpers, caretaker, maintainer. (singular: wali)
‘Awrah (عورة)
The parts of the body, male or female, must be covered in public but not between spouses, such as, body parts must be concealed of a woman before non-related men.(non-related men means she can marry those men lawfully).
Āyah (آیة), plural āyāt (آیات)
A sign. More specifically, a verse in the Qur'an.
Āyatullāh (آیة الله, also spelled Ayatollah)
Sign of God Title given to highly ranked religious scholars in Sh'ia sect.
[edit]B

Baghawat
insurgency against a legitimate government
Bai'a
(بیعة) : See Bay‘ah
Baatil
see Bātil
Baitullāh (بیت الله baytullāh)
A mosque, literally "house of God". Specifically means the Ka'aba at Makkah (Mecca).
Barakah (برکة)
a form of blessing.
BarakAllahu Feekum
may Allah bless you; response to expression of thanks.
Barzakh (برزخ)
Barrier. Used in the Qur'an to describe the barrier between sweet and salty water. In theology, the one-way barrier between the mortal realm and the spirit world which the deceased soul crosses and waits for qiyamah judgment.
Basher (بشر)
Human(s). Literally means 'face' but generally it refers to a person (man/woman).
Baṣīrah (بصیرة)
Insight, discernment, perceptivity, deep knowledge. Sometimes used by Sufis to denote the ability to directly perceive a transcendental Truth.
Bātil
(باطل) : void
Batin
The interior or hidden meaning. A person who devotes himself to studying such hidden meanings is a batini.
B.B.H.N.
Blessed be His Name - acronym for S.A.W.S. - see P.B.U.H (Peace Be Upon Him).
Bid‘ah (بدعة)
Innovation in religion, i.e. inventing new methods of worship. Bad Bid'ahs in Islam are considered a deviation and a serious sin by many Muslims.
Bid'ah sayyi'ah
Inquiry prohibited in Islam.
Bismi-llāhi r-raḥmāni r-raḥīmi (بسم الله الرحمن الرحیم)
"In the name of God, Most Gracious, Most Merciful".
Burda (بردة)
not an Arabic term; means "curtain" in Persian. Means covering or to cover.
Bay‘ah (بیعة)
an oath of allegiance to a leader, traditionally the Caliph or Imam.
[edit]C

Caliph (خلیفة khalīfah)
literally successor; refers to the successor of the Prophet Muhammad, the ruler of an Islamic theocracy.
[edit]D

Dahri
atheist - from the root ad dahr meaning time. In Islam, atheists are seen as those who think that time only destroys, hence the term ad dahriyyah for the concept of atheism.
Dajjal (دجّال)
an Islamic figure similar to the Antichrist; means "liar" or "deceiver".
Dallal (ضلال)
going astray.
Dar al'Ahd (دار العهد)
the Ottoman Empire's relationship with its Christian tributary states.
Dar al-Amn (دار الأمن)
means house of safety; refers to status of a Muslim living in some of the Western world.
Dar ad-Dawa (دار الدعوة)
a region where Islam has recently been introduced.
Dar al-Harb (دار الحرب)
means house of war; refers to areas outside Muslim rule at war with Muslim states.
Dar al-Islam (دار الإسلام)
the abode, or land, of Islam.
Dar al-Kufr (دار الکفر)
means domain of disbelief; the term originally refers to the Quraish-dominated society of Mecca between Prophet Mohammed's flight to Medina (the Hijra) and the city's conquest.
Dar as-Sulh ( دارالصلح )
domain of agreement
Dar ash-Shahada (دار الشهادة)
See Dar al-Amn
Darūd
blessing
Da‘wah (الدعوة)
the call to Islam, proselytizing.
Darwīš (درویش)
an initiate of the Sufi Path, one who practices Sufism
Dhikr
A devotional practice whereby the name of God is repeated in a rhythmical manner
Dhikr (ذکر) or zikr (in Persian/Urdu)
remembrance of God; spiritual exercise; Muslims believe that the primary function of prophets is to remind people of God.
Dhimmi (ذمّی) (pl. dhimam)
"Protected person"; Jews and Christians (and sometimes others,[1] such as Buddhists, Sikhs, Hindus, and Zoroastrians), living in an Islamic state whose right to practice their religion is tolerated under Islamic law.
Dhuhr
the second obligatory daily prayer.
Dīn (الدین)
(literally 'religion') the way of life based on Islamic revelation; the sum total of a Muslim's faith and practice. Dīn is often used to mean the faith and religion of Islam.
Diyyah (دیة)
fine for unintentional manslaughter.
Dua (دعاء)
personal prayer, supplication
Dhuhr (الظهر)
second salat prayer
Dunya (دنیا)
The physical Universe, as opposed to the Hereafter; sometimes spelled Dunia.
[edit]E

Ehtiaat (إحتیاط)
Also Ahwat. A Precaution, either obligatory or optional.[2]
Ehtiaat-Mustahabbi
A preferred precaution.[2]
Ehtiaat-Waajib
An obligatory precaution.[2]
[edit]F

Fajarah (فجرة)
Wicked evil doers. Plural of "Fajir" (فاجر).
Fajr (فجر)
dawn, early morning, and the morning prayer. The time of the day when there is light in the horizon before sunrise.
Falāḥ (فلاح)
deliverance, salvation, well-being.
Falsafah (فلسفة)
"philosophy" The methods and content of Greek philosophy which were brought into Islam. A person who tries to interpret Islam through rationalist philosophy was called a faylasuf (فیلسوف), "philosopher".
Fanā' (فناء)
Sufi term meaning extinction - to die to this life while alive. Having no existence outside of God.
Faqih (pl. fuqaha)
One who has a deep understanding of Islam, its laws, and jurisprudence. (see fiqh)
Al-Faraj
the return of the Shia Mahdi
Farḍ (فرض), plural Fara’id (فرأض) furud
a religious duty, or an obligatory action: praying 5 times a day is fard Neglecting a fard will result in a punishment in the hereafter. (See wajib)
Fard ayn ( فرض عین)
obligatory on every individual Muslim to aid in any way he can.
Fard kifayah (فرض کفایة)
an obligation on the Muslim community as a whole, from which some are freed if others take it up such as for jihad.
Fāsiq (فاسق)
anyone who has violated Islamic law; usually refers to one whose character has been corrupted (plural "fasiqun").
Fatiha
the short, opening sura of the Qur'an, which begins "In the name of God, the Merciful, the Compassionate. Praise be to God, the Lord of the Worlds..." These words hold an important place in Muslim liturgies and forms the core of the salat.
Fatwā (فتوى)
legal opinion of an (alim) binding on him and on those who follow his taqlid
Fi Amanillah
May Allah protect you. Said when a person departs.
Fiqh (فقه)
jurisprudence built around the shariah by custom (al-urf). Literally means "deep understanding", refers to understanding the Islamic laws. (see faqih)
Fi sabil Allah (فی سبیل الله)
for the sake of Allah; common Islamic expression for performing acts such as charity or Jihad and for 'qatlu' (fighting in mortal combat for the sake of Allah)
Fitna (pl. fitan) (فتنة)
trial or tribulation; also refers to any period of disorder, such as a civil war, or the period of time before the end of the world or any civil strife.
Fiṭrah (فطرة)
innate disposition towards virtue, knowledge, and beauty. Muslims believe every child is born with fitrah.
Furqān (فرقان)
the criterion (of right and wrong, true and false); for example, the Qur'an as furqan.
Fuwaysiqah
vermin, evil from the root fasaqa meaning to deviate from the right way
[edit]G

Ghafara (غفر)
(verb in past tense) to forgive, to cover up (sins). A characteristic of God.
Ghaflah (غفلة)
heedlessness, forgetfulness of God, indifference
Ghayb (غیب)
the unseen, unknown.
Ghanimah
spoils of war, booty.
Ghasbi (غصب)
possessed unlawfully
Ghazi (غازى)
(archaic) roughly, "raider": a holy warrior; a mujahid
Ghusl (غسل)
full ablution of the whole body (see wudu). Ghusl janaba is the mandatory shower after having sexual discharge.
[edit]H

Hadath akbar
major ritual impurity which requires Niyyat for cleaning.
Hadath asghar
minor ritual impurity
Hadha min fadhle Rabbi (هَذَا مِن فَضْلِ رَبِّی)
Qur'anic expression and phrase meaning This is by the Grace of my Lord.
Hādī (هادی)
a guide, one who guides; A Muslim name for God is The Guide, or Al-Hadi.
Hadith (حدیث ḥadīth) plural ahādīth
literally "speech"; recorded saying or tradition of the Prophet Muhammad validated by isnad; with sira these comprise the sunnah and reveal shariah
Hadith Mashhoor
Well-known hadith; a hadith which reported by one, two, or more Companions from the Prophets or from another Companion, but has later become well-known and transmitted by an indefinite number of people during the first and second generation of Muslims.
Ḥāfiẓ (حافظ)
someone who knows the Qur'an by heart. Literal translation = memorizer or Protector.
Haid
menstruation
Hajj (الحجّ haj)
pilgrimage to Mecca. Sunnis regard this as the fifth Pillar of Islam
Hajj al Tamattu
performing `Umrah during the Hajj season, and on the Day of Tarwiah a pilgrim gets into the state of Ihram for Hajj. Before making 'Umrah, approach the Miqat and declare the intention. End by sacrificing an animal.
Hajj al Qiran
At Miqat, declare intention to perform both Hajj and `Umrah together. After throwing the Jamrah of Al-`Aqabah, and getting hair shaved or cut that take off his Ihram garments and sacrifice animal.
Hajj al Ifrad
At Miqat, declare intention for Hajj only. Maintain Ihram garments up to the Day of Sacrifice. No offering is required from him.
Hajjaj (حاجّ)
Pilgrim, one who has made the Hajj.
Ḥākim (حاکم)
a ruler's or governor's title; in some Muslim states, a judge. See Ahkam.
Hakimiya
(حاکمیة) sovereignty, governance.
Ḥalāl (حلال)
lawful, permitted, good, beneficial, praiseworthy, honourable. (See mustahabb, mandub)
Halaqa
A gathering or meeting for the primary purpose of learning about Islam.
Halq
Shaving of the head, particularly associated with pilgrimage to Mecca[3]
Ḥanīf (حنیف)
pre-Islamic non-Jewish or non-Christian monotheists. Plural: ḥunafā' (حنفاء).
Haqq (‍حق)
truth, reality, right, righteousness. Al-Haqq is one of 99 names of God.
Ḥarām (حرام)
sinful
Ḥaram (حرم)
sanctuary.
Ḥasan (حسن)
Good, beautiful, admirable. Also a categorization of a hadith's authenticity as "acceptable". (other categorizations include authenic and fabricated).
Hawaa (pl. ahwaa')
Vain or egotistical desire; individual passion; impulsiveness.
Hidāyah (هدایة)
guidance from God.
Ḥijāb (حجاب)
literally "cover". It describes the self-covering of the body for the purposes of modesty and dignity; broadly, a prescribed system of attitudes and behaviour regarding modesty and dignity. (See abayah, al-amira, burnuk, burqa, chador, jilbab, khimar, milfeh, niqab, purdah, shayla)
Hijra (الهجرة)
Muhammad and his followers' emigration from Mecca to Medina. Literally, "migration". This holiday marks the beginning of the Muslim New Year on the first day of the month of Muharram. See Rabi Al-Awwal and abbreviation AH.
Hikmah
Literally this means "wisdom" and refers to the highest possible level of understanding attainable by a Muslim. In particular, it refers to the illuminative, mystical sort of wisdom that a Gnostic or Sufi might accomplish.
Ḥilāl (هلال)
Crescent moon Hilal (crescent moon)
Ḥimā (حمى)
wilderness reserve, protected forest, grazing commons, important to khalifa
Ḥizb (حزب)
One half of a juz', or roughly 1/60th of the Qur'an
Houri (حوریة ḥūrīya; pl. ḥūrīyāt حوریات)
beautiful and pure young men and women, that Muslims believe inhabit Paradise, or Heaven.
Hudā (هدى)
Guidance.
Hudna (هدنة)
Truce. Cease-fire (often temporary)
Ḥudūd (حدود) (sing. hadd)
Literally, limits or boundaries. Usually refers to limits placed by Allah on man; penalties of the Islamic law (sharia) for particular crimes described in the Qur'an - intoxication, theft, rebellion, adultery and fornication, false accusation of adultery, and apostasy. (See ta'zeer)
Ḥukm (حکم)
ruling in the Qur'an or Sunnah. Also spelled Hukum.
[edit]I

‘Ibādah (عبادة)
submission, worship, but not limited to ritual: all expressions of servitude to Allah, including the pursuit of knowledge, living a pious life, helping, charity, and humility, can be considered ibadah.
Iblīs (إبلیس)
a jinn banished to Hell for his arrogance and disobedience; aka Satan : derived from the Greek Diabolos or Devil He is the equivalent of Lucifer.
‘Id (عید)
festival or celebration. Alternatively tranliterated Eid.
‘Id ul-Adha (عید الأضحى)
"the Festival of Sacrifice." The four day celebration starting on the tenth day of Dhul-Hijja.
‘Id ul-Fitr (عید الفطر)
"the Festival of Fitr (Breaking the fast)." A religious festival that marks the end of the fast of Ramadan.
I'dad Al-'oda (إعداد العُدَّةِ)
"preparation for battle" according to Qur'an
Ifṭār (إفطار)
a meal eaten by Muslims breaking their fast after sunset during the month of Ramadan.
Iḥrām (إحرام)
state of consecration for hajj. Includes dress and or prayer.
Iḥsān (إحسان)
perfection in worship, such that Muslims try to worship God as if they see Him, and although they cannot see Him, they undoubtedly believe He is constantly watching over them.
Ijaz (إعجاز)
miracle, the character of the Qur'an in both form and content.
Ijazah (إجازة)
a certificate authorizing one to transmit a subject or text of Islamic knowledge
Ijmā‘ (إجماع)
the consensus of either the ummah (or just the ulema) - one of four bases of Islamic Law. More generally, political consensus itself. Shi'a substitute obedience to the Imam; opposite of ikhtilaf
Ijtihād (اجتهاد)
During the early times of Islam, the possibility of finding a new solution to a juridical problem. Has not been allowed in conservative Islam since the Middle Ages. However, Liberal movements within Islam generally argue that any Muslim can perform ijtihad, given that Islam has no generally accepted clerical hierarchy or bureaucratic organization. The opposite of ijtihad is taqlid (تقلید), Arabic for "imitation".
Ikhtilaf (اختلاف)
disagreement among the madhhabs (scholars) of a religious principle; opposite of ijma.
Ikraam (إکرام)
honouring, hospitality, generosity - Dhul jalaali wal ikraam is one of the 99 names of Allah.
Ikrah (إکراه)
mental or physical force.
Ilāh (إله)
deity, a god; including gods worshiped by polytheists.
‘Ilm (علم)
all varieties of knowledge, usually a synonym for science
Imām (إمام)
literally, leader; e.g. a man who leads a community or leads the prayer; the Shi'a sect use the term only as a title for one of the twelve Allah-appointed successors of Prophet Muhammad.
Imamah (إمامة) or imamate
successorship of Prophet Muhammad and the leadership of mankind.
Imān (إیمان)
personal faith
Innaa Lillaahi Wa Innaa Ilayhi Raaji'oon
To Allah we belong and to Him is our return - said to mourners
Infāq (إنفاق)
the habitual inclination to give rather than take in life; the basis for charity
Injīl (الإنجیل)
Arabic term for the holy book called The Gospel said to have been given to Jesus, who is known as Isa in Arabic; Muslims believe the holy book has been lost and the New Testament gospels (Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John) are not the word of Allah, only Christian stories about Jesus.
Insha'Allah (إن شاء الله)
If it is God's will; Inshallah is "resigned, accepting, neutral, passive. It is neither optimistic nor pessimistic."[1][2]
Iqamah (إقامة)
the second call to prayer. Similar to the azhan.
Irtidad (ارتداد)
apostasy (see murtadd). Also riddah ردة
‘Īsā (عیسى)
Jesus - 'Isa ibn Maryam (English: Jesus son of Mary), a matronymic (since he had no biological father. The Qur'an asserts that Allah has no sons and therefore, 'Isa is not the son of Allah. Muslims honor 'Isa as a nabi and rasul.
‘Ishā' (عشاء)
night; the fifth salat prayer
Islam (الإسلام) (help·info)
"submission to God". The Arabic root word for Islam means submission, obedience, peace, and purity.
Isnād (إسناد)
chain of transmitters of any given hadith
Isra (الإسراء)
the night journey during which Muhammad (محمّد)is said to have visited Heaven. See miraj.
Istighfar (استغفار)
requesting forgiveness
Istihada (استحاضة)
vaginal bleeding except Haid and Nifas
Istislah (استصلاح)
public interest - a source of Islamic Law.
Istish'hād (استشهاد)
martyrdom.
Itaqu
The faithful who fear Allah.
Ithim (إثم)
Negative reward for bad deeds that is tallied on qiyamah(judgment day.) Opposite of thawab.
Itikaf
seclusion in the masjid for the purpose of worship usually performed during the last 10 days of Ramadan.
Itmām al-hujjah (إتمام الحجة)
clarification of truth in its ultimate form.
[edit]J

Jaa'iz (جائز)
That which is allowed or permissible. As a rule, everything that is not prohibited is allowed. (See halal, mustahabb, mandub)
Jahannam (جهنم)
the Hell-fire; Hell
Jāhiliyyah (الجاهلیّة)
the time of ignorance before Islam was realized. Describes polytheistic religions.
Jahl (جهل)
ignorance, arrogance.
Jalsa - sitting.
Jāmi‘ah (جامعة)
"gathering"; i.e. a university, a mosque, or more generally, a community or association.
Janaba(جنابة )
A state of spiritual impurity that occur due to sexual intercourse or ejaculation and necessitates major ritual ablution (ghusl),
Janaza (جنازة)
funeral prayer
Jannah (جنة)
Paradise, Heaven, the Garden
Jazakallahu Khayran (جزاک الله خیر)
"May God reward you for the good." Islamic expression of gratitude.
Jihād (جهاد)
struggle. Any earnest striving in the way of God, involving personal, physical, for righteousness and against wrongdoing;
Jihād al Saghir
Offensive jihad declared by caliph.
Jihād al talab
Offensive jihad.
Jihād al daf’a
Defensive jihad.
Jihād bil mal
Financial jihad.
Jihād bis saif ( جهاد بسیف)
literally 'struggle by the sword'; holy war.
Jilbāb (جلباب)
(pl. jalabib) a long, flowing, garment worn by some as a more conservative means of fulfillment of sartorial hijab. (See also: abaya. burka, chador)
Jinn (جنّ)
An invisible being of fire
Jizya (جزیة)
A tax specified in the Koran (9:29) to be paid by non-Muslim males living under Muslim political control.
Juhud
To deny. Jaahid (the denier). Disbelief out of rejection. When there comes to them that which they [should] have recognized, they refuse to believe in (kafaru) it. ( 2:89) Accordingly, juhud includes rejection (kufr at-taktheeb) and resistance (kufr al-‘inaad)
Jumu‘ah (جمعة)
Friday prayer
Junub
an unclean state of body as in breaking Wudu
Janabat
an unclean state of body caused by discharge of semen or sexual intercourse
Juz' (جزء)
one of thirty parts of the Qur'an
[edit]K

Ka‘bah (الکعبة)
cube-house; the cube-shaped building i.e. in Mecca toward which Muslims pray.
Kāfir (کافر kāfir sing.; کفّار kuffār pl.)
from the word kafara - "to hide." Those who deliberately hide the truth; unbelievers, truth-concealers; one who is ungrateful. Plural: Kāfirūn. Extreme care ought to be taken with this word, as it is was (and is) occasionally misused as an offensive term for black people by white South Africans.
Kalam (علم الکلم)
Literally, “words” or “speech,” and referring to oration. The name applied to the discipline of philosophy and theology concerned specifically with the nature of faith, determinism and freedom, and the nature of the divine attributes.
Khair (خیر)
Every kind of good
Khalīfah (خلیفة)
Caliph, more generally, one performing the duties of khilafa.
Khalil (خلیل)
devoted friend
Khalq
Creation - the act of measuring; determining, estimating and calculating. Khalq is the noun form of the verb khalaqa (see bara, sawwara).
Al-khaliq
The Creator, Allah.
Khamr (خمر)
Intoxicant, wine.
Khāṭib (خطیب)
the speaker at the Friday Muslim prayer, or Jumu'ah prayer.
Khatm
Complete recitation of the Qur'an.
Kharāj (خراج)
a land tax.
Khayr
goodness. See birr (righteousness) See qist (equity) See 'adl (equilibrium and justice) See haqq (truth and right) See ma'ruf (known and approved) See taqwa (piety.)
Khilaaf
Controversy, dispute, discord.
Khilāfah (خلافة)
Man's trusteeship and stewardship of Earth; Most basic theory of the Caliphate; Flora and fauna as sacred trust; Accountability to; God for harms to nature, failure to actively care and maintain. Three specific ways in which khalifa is manifested in Muslim practice are the creation of haram to protect water, hima to protect other species (including those useful to man), and by resisting infidel domination over Muslim lands, in jihad.
Khalīfāt Rashīdūn
four first caliphs, believed by most Muslims to be most righteous rulers in history
Khimār (خمار) (pl. khumur)
headcovering (Q. 24:31).
Khitan (ختان)
Male circumcision.
Khuluq
ethics
Khushu' - humility, devotion, concentration (especially in prayer).
Khuṭbah (خطبة)
the sermon at Jumu'ah prayer.
Kibr - pride, arrogance
Kibar - old age
Kitāb (کتاب)
book; The Qur'an is often referred to as "Al-Kitāb" (The Book).
Kufr (کفر)
In Arabic - ungratefulness and disbelief in God and denial of the truth. See Kafir and Kuffar
Kufrul-hukmi
Disbelief from judgment.
Kufrul-'Inaad
Disbelief out of stubbornness
Kufrul-Inkaar
Disbelief out of arrogance and pride.
Kufrul-Istibdaal
Disbelief because of trying to substitute Allaah's Laws.
Kufrul-Istihaal
Disbelief out of trying to make HARAM into HALAL.
Kufrul-Istihzaha
Disbelief due to mockery and derision
Kufrul jahli
Disbelief from not being aware of or not understanding.
Kufrul-juhudi
Disbelief from obstinacy after being presented with truth.
Kufrul-Nifaaq
Disbelief out of hypocrisy.
Kufrul-I'raadh
Disbelief due to avoidance.
Kun (کن)
God's command to the universe, 'Be!' is sufficient to create it.
[edit]L

Lā ilāha ill-Allāh (لاإله إلا الله)
"There is none worthy of worship other than God." The most important expression in Islam. It is part of the first pillar of Islam. Also is the message of all the Prophets, such as Abraham, Moses, Jesus and Muhammad.
Labbayk Allahuma ()
God, I obey you (said during hajj)
Laghw (لغو)
Dirty, false, evil vain talk
La‘nah (لعنة)
Imploration for withdrawal of God's mercy
Laylat al-Qadr (لیلة القدر)
the Night of Power, towards the end of Ramadan, when Muhammad received the first revelation of the Qur'an.
[edit]M

Madrasah (مدرسة)
school, university
Maghrib (مغرب)
the fourth daily salat prayer
Mahdi (مهدی)
"a guide". More specifically al-Mahdi (the guide) is a figure who will appear with Prophet Jesus before the end of time, when God allows it, to bring world peace, order and justice, after it has been overcome with injustice and aggression.
Mahdur ad-damm
he whose blood must be wasted
Mahram (محرم)
a relative of the opposite gender usually described as being "within the forbidden limits"; a better description is "within the protected limits". means relatives who one can appear before without observing hijab and who one cannot marry.
Makrūh
Means "detested", though not haraam (forbidden); something that is disliked or offensive. If a person commits the Makruh, he does not accumulate ithim but avoiding the Makhruh is rewarded with thawab.
Malā’ikah (ملائکة)
angels (Sing. Malak). It was one of these mala'ika, Jibril (Gabriel) who delivered Allah's revelation to Muhammad.
Ma malakat aymanukum (ما ملکت أیمانکم)
one's rightful spouse (literally: what your right hands possess)
Manasik
the rules specifying the requirements of a legally valid hajj
Mandub
commendable or recommended. Failure to do it would not be a sin. (See halal mustahabb)
Manhaj (منهج)
the methodology by which truth is reached[4]
Mansukh
That which is abrogated. The doctrine of al-Nasikh wal-Mansukh (abrogation) of certain parts of the Qur'anic revelation by others. The principle is mentioned in the Qur'an (2:106) see naskh.
Manzil (منزل)
one of seven equal parts of the Qur'an.
Ma‘rūf (معروف)
consensus of the community
Maqaṣid (مقصد)
goals or purposes; such as the purposes of Islamic law
'Masaleh (مصلحةمة): public interests
Masha Allah (ما شاء الله)
Allah has willed it.
Masīḥ (مسیح)
the (Biblical) Messiah, Jesus Christ.
Masjid (مسجد) pl. masājid, مساجد
place of prayer; mosque
Masjid al-Haram
the area around the Kaaba.
Math'hab (مذهب)
(pl. Madhahib) school of religious jurisprudence, school of thought;Mawali or mawala (موالی): Non-Arab Muslims
Mawlā (pl. mawli)
protector or supporter.
Mawlānā (مولانا)
an Arabic word literally meaning "our lord" or "our master". It is used mostly as a title preceding the name of a respected religious leader, in particular graduates of religious institutions. The term is sometimes used to refer to Rumi.
Maulvi (مولوی)
an honorific Islamic religious title often, but not exclusively, given to Muslim religious scholars or Ulema preceding their names. Maulvi generally means any religious cleric or teacher.
Mecca (مکّة Makkah)
the holiest city in Islam
Medina (مدینة Madīnah)
"city"; Medinat-un-Nabi means "the City of the Prophet." See Hijra (Islam).
Mi‘ād (معاد)
the Resurrection; God will resurrect all of humankind to be judged. Shi'as regard this as the fifth Pillar of Islam.
Mihrab (محراب)
a niche in the wall of all mosques, indicating the direction of prayer
Millah
In Arabic, millah means "religion," but it has only been used to refer to religions other than Islam, which is din.
Millet
In an Islamic state, "Ahl al Kitab" may continue to practice their former religion in a semi-autonomous community termed the millet.
Minaret (منارة)
a tower built onto a mosque from the top of which the call to prayer is made
Minbar (منبر)
a raised pulpit in the mosque where the Imam stands to deliver sermons
Minhaj (منهج)
methodology, e.g. methods, rules, system, procedures.
Miqat (میقات )
intended place
Miraj (المعراج)
the Ascension to the Seven Heavens during the Night Journey See also: isra
Mu'adhdhin (مأذن)
a person who performs the call to prayer
Mu'ahadat (معاهدات)
treaties
Mu‘awwidhatayn (المعوذتین)
suras Al-Falaq and an-Nas, the "Surahs of refuge", should be said to relieve suffering (also protect from Black Magic)
Mubāḥ (مباح)
literally permissible; neither forbidden nor commended. Neutral. (See halal)
Mubaligh (مبلغ)
person who recites Qur'an
Mufa’khathat
placing between the thighs
Muftī (مفتى)
an Islamic scholar who is an interpreter or expounder of Islamic law (Sharia), capable of issuing fataawa (plural of "fatwa").
Muhajabah (محجبة)
woman who wears hijab (polite form of hijabi).
Muhakkamat
unequivocal verses of Qur'an. (See mutashabehat.)
Muharebeh (محاربة)
a person who wages war against God
Muhammadun rasulullah
"Muhammad is the messenger of God." This statement is the second part of the first pillar of Islam. This is the second most important statement in Islam.
Mufsidūn (مفسدون)
evil-doer a person who wages jihad (war) not in accordance with the Qur'an. Plural mufsideen.
Muhsin (محسن)
a person who performs good deed. Plural muhsineen. Opposite of Mufsidun.
Muhājirūn (مهاجرون)
The first Muslims that accompanied Muhammad when he traveled to Medina.
Muhartiq (مهرطق)
heretic.
Mujāhid (مجاهد)
a fighter for Islam. Plural mujahidīn.
Mujtahid (مجتهد)
a scholar who uses reason for the purpose of forming an opinion or making a ruling on a religious issue. Plural: Mujtahidun.
Mullah (ملا)
are Islamic clergy. Ideally, they should have studied the Qur'an, Islamic traditions (hadith), and Islamic law (fiqh).
Mū’min (مؤمن)
A Muslim who observes the commandments of the Qur'an.
Munafiq (منفق)
hypocrite. Plural: Munafiqun
Muntaqabah (منتقبة) pl. muntaqabāt (منتقبات)
woman who wears niqab
Murabaha
a type of sharia-compliant mortgage (see Ijara)
Murshid (مرشد)
a Sufi teacher
Murtadd (مرتد) female apostate is Murtadah
apostate (see irtidad see mahdur ad-damm.)
Mushaf
a copy, codex or redaction of the Qur'an.
Mushrik (pl. mushrikoon)
One who associates others in worship with God; a polytheist.
Muslim (مسلم)
a follower of the religion of Islam. One who submits their will to Allah (God)
Mustaḥabb (مستحبّ)
commendable or recommended. (See halal, mandub)
Mut‘ah (متعه)
literally joy; a type of temporary marriage practiced only by the Shī‘ah; or a practice between ‘Umrah and Ḥajj.
Mutashabehat
equivocal verses of Qur'an. (See Muhakkamat.)
Muta'sibūn (متعصبین)
fanatics
Mutaween (مطوعین) (singular mutawa)
Religious police.
Mutawātir (متواتر)
"agreed upon"--used to describe hadith that were narrated by many witnesses through different narration chains (isnads) leading back to Muhammad
[edit]N

Nabī (نبی)
literally, prophets. In the Islamic context, a Nabi is a man sent by God to give guidance to man, but not given scripture. The Prophet Abraham was a Nabi. This is in contrast to Rasul, or Messenger. Plural: Anbiya. See: Rasul.
Nafs (النفس)
soul, the lower self, the ego/id
Nafila
An optional, supererogatory practice of worship, in contrast to farida
Najāsah
Impurity
Najasat (نجاسة), Najis (نجس)
an unclean thing
Naji
impure
Nakir and Munkar (نکیر و منکر)
two malaikah who test the faith of the dead in their graves
Naqîra (نقیرا)
speck on the back of a date stone
Nasīha
advice
Naskh (نسخ)
The doctrine of al-Nasikh wal-Mansukh (abrogation) of certain parts of the Qur'anic revelation by others. The principle is mentioned in the Qur'an (2:106) see mansukh.
Nass (نصّ)
a known, clear legal injunction
Nifas
the bleeding after childbirth (see Haid)
Nifaq (نفاق)
falsehood; dishonesty; hipocrisy
Nikah (النکاح)
the matrimonial contract between a bride and bridegroom within Islamic marriage
Niqāb (نقاب)
veil covering the face
Niyyat (نیة)
intention
Nubuwwah (نبوّة)
prophethood. Shi'as regard this as the third Pillar of Islam.
Nukra
a great munkar - prohibited, evil, dreadful thing.
Nūr (نور)
light. Muslims believe angels were created from light and jinn from fire.
[edit]P

P.B.U.H.
an acronym that stands for "peace be unto him" a blessing which is affixed to Muhammad's name whenever it is written. In some circles and English writings, Sufis regard PBUH to signify "Peace and Blessings Upon Him" (the Rasul or Messenger of Allah).[5] These are the primary English explications of the P.B.U.H. acronym. The Arabic version is S.A.W.
Prophet
A person who has had messages from Allah. (see nabi).
[edit]Q

Qadhf (قذف)
false imputation of unchastity specifically punished by sharia.
Qadar
predestination.
Qādī (قاضی)
judge of Islamic Law
Qalb (قلب)
Heart
Qiblah
the direction Muslims face during prayer
Qitaal fee sybil Allah ( وقاتلوا فی سبیل الله )
fight in the cause of Allah.
Qiyāmah
resurrection; return of the dead for the Day of Judgment
Qiṣāṣ (قصاص)
equitable retribution - a fine for murder if the heirs forgive the perpetrator. (See hudud, tazeer)
Qiyam
to stand, a position of salah prayer
Qiyās (القیاس)
analogy - foundation of legal reasoning and thus fiqh
Qudsī
classification of a hadith that are believed to be narrated by Muhammad from God.
Qurbat
closeness to God. Term is associated with Sufism.
Qur'an (القرآن)
The word Qur'an means recitation. Muslims believe the Qur'an (Koran) to be the literal word of God and the culmination of God's revelation to mankind, revealed to prophet Muhammad in the year AD 610 in the cave Hira by the angel Jibril.
[edit]R

Rabb (ربّ)
Lord, Sustainer, Cherisher, Master.
R. A., Radiyallahu anhu
May Allah be pleased with him. Variants are anha (her) and anhum (them).
Rahman (رحمن)
Merciful; Ar-Rahman (الرحمن) means "The Most Merciful"
Rahim (رحیم)
compassionate; Ar-Rahim (الرحیم) means "The Most Compassionate" as in the Basmala
Rajm (رجم)
the practice of stoning
Raka'ah
one unit of Islamic prayer, or Salat. Each daily prayer is made up of a different number of raka'ah.
Ramadhan
month of fasting when the Qur'an was first revealed
Rashidun
Sunnis consider the first four caliphs as the "orthodox" or "rightly guided" caliphs. They were Abu Bakr, 'Umar, 'Uthman and 'Ali.
Rasul (رسول)
messenger; Unlike prophets (Nabi), messengers are given scripture. Moses, David, Jesus and Mohammed are considered messengers. All messengers are considered prophets, but not all prophets are given scripture. See: Nabi.
Riba (ربا)
interest, the charging and paying of which is forbidden by the Qur'an
Ribat
Guarding Muslims from infidels
Riddah (ردة)
apostasy, in which a person abandons Islam for another faith or no faith at all.
Risalah (رِسَالَة)
literally, message or letter. Used both in common parlance for mail correspondences, and in religious context as divine message.
Ruh (روح)
spirit; the divine breath which God blew into the clay of Adam.
Rukn plural arkan
means what is inevitable. One of the five pillars of Islam. (See fard, wajib)
Ruk'u
the bowing performed during salat.
[edit]S

Sabb
blasphemy: insulting God (sabb Allah) or Muhammad (sabb al-rasul or sabb al-nabī).
Ṣabr
patience, endurance, self-restraint
Sadaqah (صدقة)
charity; voluntary alms above the amount for zakat.
Sahabah (الصحابه) (sing. Sahābi)
companions of Muhammad. A list of the best-known Companions can be found at List of companions of Muhammad.
Sahih
"Sound in isnad." A technical attribute applied to the "isnad" of a hadith.
Sakina
divine "tranquility" or "peace" which descends upon a person when the Qur'an is recited.
Salaf (السلف الصالح)
(righteous) predecessors/ancestors. In Islam, Salaf is generally used to refer to the first three generations of Muslims. Anyone who died after this is one of the khalaf or "latter-day Muslims".
Ṣalah (صلاة) sala(t)
any one of the daily five obligatory prayers. Sunnis regard this as the second Pillar of Islam
Salaat al-Istikharah
Prayer for guidance is done in conjunction with two rakaahs of supererogatory prayer.
Salām (سلام)
peace (see sulh)
Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam (صلى الله علیه و سلم)
"May Allah bless him and grant him peace." The expression should be used after stating Prophet Muhammad's name. See abbreviation: S.A.W. or S.A.W.S. also P.B.U.H.
Samad
eternal, absolute; Muslims believe Allah is "The Eternal."
Salsabil
a river in heaven (al-firdaus)
Sawa
awakening, revival
S.A.W. (or S.A.W.S.)
Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam (صلى الله علیه و سلم). See P.B.U.H.
Ṣawm (صَوم)
fasting during the month of Ramadhan. The word sawm is derived from Syriac sawmo.
Sayyid (سیّد)
(in everyday usage, equivalent to 'Mr.') a descendant of a relative of Muhammad, usually via Husayn.
Sema
refer to some of the ceremonies used by various sufi orders
Shahādah (الشهادة)
The testimony of faith: La ilaha illa Allah. Muhammadun rasulullah. ("There is no god but Allah. Muhammad is the messenger of Allah."). Sunnis regard this as the first Pillar of Islam. Also may be used as a synonym for the term Istish'hād meaning martyrdom.
Shahīd (شهید) pl. shuhada (شهداء)
witness, martyr. Usually refers to a person killed whilst fighting in "jihad fee sybil Allah" (jihad for the sake of Allah). Often used in modern times for deaths in a political cause (including victims of soldiers, deaths in battle, et cetera) which are viewed by some Muslims as a spiritual cause not just a political cause. But the real meaning of Jihad is to defend Islam in any way; thus, it could be in an economic way or could refer to fighting for the rights of the oppressed or the believers; most often it refers to mastering one's own inclination for evil and shirk.
Shaykh (شیخ)
a spiritual master, Muslim clergy
Sharī‘ah (الشریعة)
"the path to a watering hole"; the eternal ethical code and moral code based on the Qur'an and Sunnah; basis of fiqh
Sharīf (شریف)
a title bestowed upon the descendants of Muhammad through Hasan, son of his daughter Fatima Zahra and son-in-law Ali ibn Abi Talib
Shaytan (شیطان)
Satan, the Devil; also known as Iblis
Shī‘ah (الشیعة)
A branch of Islam who believe in Imam Ali and his sons (Hassan and Hussayn) as custodians of Islam by the will of the Prophet Mohammed.
Shirk (شرک)
idolatry; polytheism; the sin of believing in any divinity except God and of associating other gods with God.
Shūrā (شورى)
consultation
Majlis ash-shūrā (مجلس الشورى)
advisory council in a Caliphate
Sidrat al-Muntaha (سدرة المنتهى )
a lotus tree that marks the end of the seventh heaven, the boundary where no creation can pass.
Sirah (السیرة)
life or biography of the Prophet Muhammad; his moral example - with hadith this comprises the sunnah
Sirat al-Mustaqim
the Straight Path
Subah Sadiq
true dawn
Subhanahu wa ta'ala (abbreviated S.W.T.)
expression used following written name or vocalization of Allah in Arabic meaning highly praised and glorified is He.
Subhan'allah
"Glory to God" -- this phrase is often used when praising God or exclaiming awe at His attributes, bounties, or creation.
Ṣūfī (صوفی)
a Muslim mystic; See: Sufism (tasawwuf).
Suhūr
the meal eaten by fasting Muslims just before dawn.
Sujud(سجود)
kneeling down, a position of salat.
Sukuk (صکوک)
bond that generates revenue from sales, profits, or leases rather than interest.
Sulh (صلح)
is derived from the Arabic word musalaha it is a tool at the disposal of an Islamic commander to be offered to the enemy as a respite from military Jihad. (see hudna)
Sunnah (السنّة) or sunnah al-Nabi (سنّة النبی)
the "path" or "example" of the Prophet Muhammad, i.e., what the Prophet did or said or agreed to during his life. He is considered by Muslims to be the best human moral example, the best man to follow.
Sunnat
an act which the Prophets performed; not required but carries much reward
Sunni (سنّی)
the largest denomination of Islam. The word Sunni comes from the word Sunnah (Arabic: سنة), which means the words and actions or example of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad.
Sūrah (سورة)
chapter; the Qur'an is composed of 114 suras
[edit]T

Ta'alaa (تعالى)
Almighty
Taba'īn (تابعون|تابعین)
followers of the Sahabah
Tafsīr (تفسیر)
exegesis, particularly such commentary on the Qur'an
Taghut (طاغوت) (taghout)
originally Aramaic, meaning "false god"; also tyranny.
Tahajjud (تهجُّد)
optional (supererogatory), late-night (pre-dawn) prayer
Taharah (طهارة)
purification from ritual impurities by means of wudu or ghusl
Tahir (طاهر)
pure, ritually clean
Tahlil
Uttering the formula of faith: "La ilaha illa Allah", i.e. (No god but Allah)
Tahnik
'Tahnik' is an Islamic ceremony of touching the lips of a newborn baby with honey, sweet juice or pressed dates.
Taḥrīf (تحریف)
corruption, forgery. Muslims believe the Bible Scriptures were corrupted but the Qur'an is in its original form.
Tajdīd (تجدید)
to purify and reform society in order to move it toward greater equity and justice, literally meaning to make new in present tense
Tajdif (تجدیف)
blasphemy
Tajwīd (تجوید)
a special manner of reciting the Qur'an according to prescribed rules of pronunciation and intonation.
Takaful ( التکتاقل)
Based on sharia Islamic law, it is a form of mutual insurance. See retakaful.
Takbīr (تکبیر)
a proclamation of the greatness of Allah; a Muslim invocation.
Takfir (تکفیر)
declaration of individual or group of previously considered Muslim as kaffir.
Tamaninat (طمأنینة)
to be motionless
Takhrīj (تخریج الحدیث )
The science of hadith extraction and authentication, including validation of chains of transmitters of a hadith by this science's scholars and grading hadith validity.
Talaq (الطلاق)
divorce
Taqdir
fate, predestination
Taqlīd (تقلید)
to follow the scholarly opinion of one of the four Imams of Islamic Jurispudence.
Taqiyya (تقیّة)
a principle that one is allowed to hide his true beliefs in certain circumstances to save himself of being killed or harmed.
Taqwa (تقوى)
righteousness; goodness; Piety: Taqwa is taken from the verbe Ittaqua, which means Avoiding, Fearing the punishment from Allah for committing sins. It is piety obtained by fearing the punishment of Allah.
Tarawih (تراویح)
extra prayers in Ramadan after the Isha prayer.
Tarkīb (تَرْکِیب)
the study of Arabic grammar issued from the Qur'an
Ṭarīqah (طریقة)
a Muslim religious order, particularly a Sufi order
Tartīl (ترتیل)
slow, meditative recitation of the Qur'an
Tasawwuf (التصوّف) or Sufism
Tasbih
Uttering the formula: "Subhan Allah", i.e. (Glory be to Allah)
Tashkīl (تشکیل)
vocalization of Arabic text by means of diacritical marks. An integral part of the Arabic writing system. Literally meaning to form or arrange
Taslim (تسلیم)
salutation at the end of prayer
Tatbeer
Shia Ashura ceremony of self-flagellation by hitting head with sword. (See zinjeer)
Tawakul (توکُّل)
total reliance on Allah.
Tawassul (توسُّل)
asking Allah Almighty through the medium and intercession of another person.
Tawaf (طواف)
circumambulating the Ka'bah during Hajj.
Tawbah (توبه)
repentance
Tawhīd (توحید)
monotheism; affirmation of the Oneness of Allah. Muslims regard this as the first part of the Pillar of Islam, the second part is accepting Muhammad as rasoul (messenger). The opposite of Tawheed is shirk
Tawrat (توراة)
the Torah as revealed to Musa (Moses.)
Tayyib (طیِّب)
all that is good as regards things, deeds, beliefs, persons, foods, etc. Means "pure." The Shahaddath is tayyib.
Ta'zeer (تعزیر)
Discretionary punishment - a sentence or punishment whose measure is not fixed by the Shari'ah. (See hudud, qisas)
Tazkiyah (تزکیة)
Purification of the Soul.
Thawab (ثواب)
Reward for good deeds that is tallied on qiyamah (judgment day.) Opposite of ithim.
Tilawa (تلاوة)
ritual recitation of passages of the Qur'an.
[edit]U

Ubudiyah
worship
Udhiyah
sacrifice
‘Ulamā’ (علماء) or ulema
the leaders of Islamic society, including teachers, Imams and judges. Singular alim.
Ummah (الاُمّة) or umma
(literally 'nation') the global community of all Muslim believers
‘Umrah (عمرة)
the lesser pilgrimage performed in Mecca. Unlike hajj, ‘umrah can be performed throughout the year.
Uqubat
the branch of sharia that deals with punishment. (See hudud, qisas, tazeer)
‘Urf (عرف)
custom of a given society, leading to change in the fiqh
Usul (sing. asl)
Principles, origins.
Usul al-Fiqh
the study of the origins and practice of Islamic jurisprudence (fiqh)
[edit]W

Wa ‘Alaykum as-Salaam (و علیکم السلام)
Wa ‘Alaykum as-Salaam!, meaning "and upon you be peace". (see As-Salamu Alaykum)
Wafat
death (Barah-wafat) Muhammad was born on the twelfth day of Rabi-ul-Awwal, the third month of the Muslim year. His death anniversary also falls on the same day, the word 'barah' standing for the twelve days of Muhammad's sickness.
Waḥdat al-wujūd (وحدة الوجود)
"unity of being". Philosophical term used by some Sufis. Related to fanaa
Wahy (وحی)
revelation or inspiration of God to His prophets for all humankind
Wahn
love of this life and hatred of death
Wajib (واجب)
obligatory or mandatory see fard
Wali (ولی)
friend, protector, guardian, supporter, helper
Waqf (وقف)
An endowment of money or property: the return or yield is typically dedicated toward a certain end, for example, to the maintenance of the poor, a family, a village, or a mosque. Plural: Awqaf.
Warrāq (ورّاق)
traditional scribe, publisher, printer, notary and book copier
Wasat
the middle way, justly balanced, avoiding extremes, moderation
Waseelah
the means by which one achieves nearness to Allah (see tawassul )
Witr (وتر)
a voluntary, optional night prayer of odd numbers rakaats.
Wudhu` (الوضوء)
ablution for ritual purification from minor impurities before salat (see ghusl)
[edit]Y

Ya Allah (یا الله)
O, God!
Ya Rasool Allah (یارسول الله)
O, Messenger of God!. Term used by companions when interacting with Prophet Mohammad.
Yajooj-wa-Majooj (ماجوج و یاجوج )
Gog and Magog
Yaqin (یقین)
certainty, that which is certain
Yarhamuk-Allah (یرحمک الله)
"May God have mercy on you", said when someone sneezes; the same as "(God) bless you" in English
Allah Yerhamo (الله یرحمه, fem. yerhama)
"May God have mercy of his/her soul", (said when someone dies)
Yaum al-Deen (یوم الدین)
Day of Reckoning, Awe
Yaum al-Ghadab (یوم الغضب)
Day of Rage, Wrath
Yawm ul-Qiyāmah (یوم القیامة)
"Day of the Resurrection"; Day of Judgement
[edit]Z

Zabur (زبور)
the Psalms revealed to King Daoud (David)
Zabiha (ذَبِیْحَة) see dhabiha
Islamic method of slaughtering an animal. Using a sharp knife the animal's windpipe, throat and blood vessels of the neck are severed without cutting the spinal cord to ensure that the blood is thoroughly drained before removing the head. See halal
Zahir
Exterior meaning
Zaidi (الزیدیة)
Islamic sub-sect of Shi'ah, popularly found in Yemen, with similarities to Sunni
Zakat (زکاة), Al-Maal
tax, alms, tithe as a Muslim duty; Sunnis regard this as the fourth Pillar of Islam. Neither charity nor derived from Islamic economics, but a religious duty and social obligation.
Zakat (زکاة) Al-Fitr
Zalimun (ظالمون)
polytheists, wrong-doers, and unjust.
Zandaqa (زندقة)
heresy
Zināa (زناء, زنى)
sexual activity outside of marriage (covering the English words adultery and fornication)
Zindiq (زندیق)
heretic, atheist
Zulfiqar (ذو الفقار)
Sword of Ali, presented to him by Muhammad
[edit]Notes

Arabic words are created from three-letter "roots" which convey a basic idea. For example, k-t-b conveys the idea of writing. Addition of other letters before, between, and after the root letters produces many associated words: not only "write" but also "book", "office", "library", and "author". The abstract consonantal root for Islam is s-l-m.
Some Islamic concepts are usually referred to in Persian or Turkic. Those are typically of later origin than the concepts listed here; for completeness it may be best to list Persian terms and those unique to Shi'a on their own page, likewise Turkic terms and those unique to the Ottoman period on their own page, as these are culturally very distinct.
The word "crusade" in English is usually translated in Arabic as "Hamlah Ssaleebiyah" which means literally "campaign of Cross-holders" (or close to that meaning). In Arabic text it is "حملة صلیبیة" and the second word comes from "Ssaleeb" which means "cross."
The verses in the Qur'an that Christians usually refer to as jihad verses have the phrase "qitl fee sybil Allah" (fight/kill for the sake of Allah).
[edit]See also

99 Names of God
List of English words of Arabic origin
List of Christian terms in Arabic
Prophets of Islam
Islamic eschatology
[edit]References

^ USC-MSA Compendium of Muslim Texts
^ a b c "The Islamic glossary: An explanation of names, terms and Symbols". Retrieved 2007-12-06.
^ Bakri H. S. Al-Azzam. Certain Terms Relating to Islamic Observances: Their Meanings with Reference to Three Translations of the Qur’an and a Translation of Hadith. Universal-Publishers. p. 247. ISBN 978-1-59942-668-6.
^ Quintan Wiktorowicz. Radical Islam rising: Muslim extremism in the West. Rowman & Littlefield, 2005. ISBN 0-7425-3641-6, ISBN 978-0-7425-3641-8. Pg 18
^ Charles Hu Winstead, B.A. in Writing, University of Tennessee, Editor and Publisher of The American Vampire Horror Writers Group, and attendee of certain Circles in Kansas City, MO and Seattle, WA.
[edit]Further reading

Suzanne Haneef, What Everyone Should Know about Islam and Muslims, (Kazi Publications, Chicago), popular introduction
Muzaffar Haleem, The Sun is Rising In the West, (Amana Publications, Beltsville, MD 1999).
Ziauddin Sardar, Muhammad for Beginners, Icon Books, 1994, some sloppiness, from very modern Sufi point of view.
Hans Wehr, A Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic (Spoken Language Services, Ithaca, NY, 1976). ed. J. Milton Cowan. ISBN 0-87950-001-8.
Islam in the World by Malise Ruthven (Gantra Publications, 2006) ISBN 1-86207-906-4
[edit]External links

[3] free expressions with audio
Voiced Dictionary of Islamic and Arabic Key Words
Glossary of Islamic terms
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Categories: Arabic words and phrasesGlossaries of religionIslam-related listsIslamic terms

قس پشتو

په لاندې توګه د اسلام وییپانګه د تورو په حساب ټاکل شوې ده. کینډۍ:Islam The following list consists of concepts that are derived from both Islamic and Arab tradition, which are expressed as words in the Arabic language. The main purpose of this list is to disambiguate multiple spellings, to make note of spellings no longer in use for these concepts, to define the concept in one or two lines, to make it easy for one to find and pin down specific concepts, and to provide a guide to unique concepts of Islam all in one place.

Separating concepts in Islam from concepts specific to Arab culture, or from the language itself, can be difficult. Many Arabic concepts have an Arabic secular meaning as well as an Islamic meaning. One example is the concept of dawah. One of the complexities of the Arabic language is that a single word can have multiple meanings. The word Islam is itself a good example.

Readers should also note that Arabic is written in its own alphabet, with letters, symbols, and orthographic conventions that do not have exact equivalents in the Latin alphabet (see Arabic alphabet). The following list is a transliteration of Arabic terms and phrases. Consequently, Muslims may transliterate certain Arabic words differently, such as din as opposed to deen, and aqidah as opposed to aqeedah. Most items in the list also contain their actual Arabic spelling.


نیولیک: Top - 0–9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z



[سمول]ا

عبد (بنده)
غلام، بنده، اطاعت کوونکی. مسلمانان ځانونه د خدای بنده ګان یا غلامان ګڼی. په مسلمانانو کې عام نومونه لکه عبدالله (د خدای بنده)، عبدالمالک (د پاچا بنده)، عبدالرحمن (د رحمن بنده)، عبدالسلام(د سولې او سلامتۍ بنده) دا ټول د الله د ۹۹ نومونو لور ته اشاره کوی.
أدب (ادب)
Traditionally describes good manners, as in etiquette. For example, being courteous is good adab. However, the term can be used very broadly, and the proper translation would be "the proper way to go about something," as in the example, Aadaab al Qitaal, or, "The Proper Way of Fighting in War," (Qitaal in Arabic means mortal combat) in which the word "etiquette" does not befit the context. Literally meaning literature.
أذان (أذان)
call to salat (prayer), sometimes alternatively spelled and pronounced Azaan and Adhan.
عدل (عدل)
Justice especially distributive justice: social, economic, political, environmental.
A.H.
"After Hijrah" The Islamic calendar starts counting years starting from the time when Muhammad had to leave Mecca and go to Medina, an event known as the Hijra: July 16 622.
احد (أحد)
literally "one." Islamically, ahad means One Alone, unique, none like God. Al-Wahid is one of the names of God.
احکام (أحکام)
rulings and orders of the Qu'ran and Sunnah. Five kinds of orders: Wajib, Mustahab, Muharram, Makruh, and Halal.
اهل البیت (أهل البیت )
members of Muhammad's Household. Also known among Shia as the Ma'sumin (infallibles; spiritually pure).
اهل الفترة ( أهل الفترة)
people who live in ignorance of the teachings of a revealed religion, but according to the "Fitra", the "Natural Religion" innate to human nature as created by God.
أهل الکتاب (د کتاب خلک)
"People of the Book", or followers of pre-Islamic monotheistic religions with some form of scripture believed to be of divine origin which were mentioned in Quran: Jews, Christians.
الآخرة (الآخرة)
hereafter or eternal life
اخلاق (أخلاق)
The practice of virtue. Morals. See khuluq.
اخلاص (إخلاص)
Genuine in religious beliefs.
البر (البر)
Piety and righteousness and every act of obedience to Allah.
عالمین (عالمین)
Literally "worlds", humankind, jinn, angels and all that exists
علیه السلام (علیه السلام)
"Peace be upon him" This expression normally follows after naming a prophet (other than Muhammad), or one of the noble Angels (i.e. جبرییل[جبراییل], میکاییل[میکاییل], etc.)
الحمد لله (الحمد لله)
"Praise be to God!" Qur'anic exclamation and also same meaning as hallelujah.
الله (الله)
God (in monotheistic understanding of the word); the only entity worthy of worship
الهم (اللَّهُمَّ)
"O God."
الله اکبر (الله أکبر)
"God is the Greatest." Islamic expression.
‘Ālim (عالِم)
One who knows. A scholar (in any field of knowledge); a scientist (who knows science) or a theologian (who knows religion); similar to Japanese sensei, "teacher". Also meaning "world"
امانة (أمانة)
the trust. Of all creation, only human beings carry the "trust", which is free will.
آمین (آمین)
Amen, a supplication meaning, "O God, accept our invocation!".
امیر المومنین (أمیر المؤمنین)
In some countries like Morocco, a Amīrul-Mu’minīn or Commander of the faithful is the religious chief.
Aminah (آمنة)
Muhammad's mother. Aminah fell sick and died in Abwa, near Madina (then Yathrib) when Muhammad was six years old.
Al Amr Bi'l Maruf
Islamic doctrine of enjoining right.
anfal
Property of the Imam
Anṣār (أنصار)
"Helpers." The Muslim converts at Medina who helped the Muslims from Mecca after the Hijrah.
‘Aqīdah (عقیدة)
The Islamic creed, or the six article of faith, which consists of the belief in God, Angels, Messengers and Prophets, Scriptures, the Day of Judgment, and Destiny.
Aqiqah (عقیقة)
Islamic practice of shaving the head of the new born male and contributing the weight in silver for charity as well as 2 lambs. One lamb is slaughtered for a baby girl.
‘Aql (عقل)
Intelligence, intellect, mind, understanding
Arkan singular rukn (رکن/أرکان)
The five rukn "pillars" of Islam. (See rukn)
A.S. ('Alayhis-salaam)
This acronym evokes a blessing and is appended to the names of the prophets who came before Muhammad. It will also be applied the mothers of those prophets. When following a woman's name, the feminine form is 'Alayhas-salaam.
Asl (pl. usool)
Root, origin, source; principle.
Aslim Taslam (أسلِم تسلَم)
"Submit to Islam" (See dawah) (See: lan astaslem)
Asmā’ Allah al-Ḥusnā (أسماء الله الحسنى)
List of God's 99 names. According to a hadith, the one who enumerates them all will enter Paradise.
‘Aṣr (العصر)
The third salat prayer. The time of the day before sunset and after noon. also means "era".
Aṣ-Ṣirāṭ
The bridge on which judgement of where a person's Akhira (afterlife) will lie is passed.
al-Asharatu Mubashsharun bil-Jannah or just Asharatu Mubashsharah (کینډۍ:Lang-ar-at)
The ten companions of Muhammad who were promised paradise (only in Sunni Islam)
‘Āshūrā’ (عاشوراء)
Tenth day of the month of Muharram. It is the day God saved Moses and the children of Israel from the Pharaoh. The grandson of the prophet Muhammad, Imam Hussayn sacrificed his life along with 72 of his companions on the sand dunes of Karbala. Sunni Scholars recommended to fast during this day. To the Shias, it is also a day on which they mourn the death of the third Shia Imam, Husayn ibn Ali, along with his family and companions, who were killed in the famous battle in Karbala. They cry and weep and organize lamentating programmes where they not only learn how to live a proper Islamic life and improve their Spiritual Self but also cry at the end of the ritual to show their true love and faith towards imam Hussayn.
As-Salāmu ‘Alaykum (السلام علیکم)
The Islamic greeting; literally "Peace be upon you"; In addition, wa-Raḥmatullāhi wa-Barakātuhu means "and the Mercy of God and His blessing". The response to this greeting is wa-‘Alaykum us-Salām wa-Raḥmatullāhi wa-Barakātuhu --"And on you be the Peace and Mercy of God and His Blessing".
Astaghfirullāh (أستغفر الله)
"I seek forgiveness from God." Islamic expression.
A'udhu billah (أعوذ بالله ’A‘ūdhu billāh)
"I seek refuge in God". This is a paraphrase on the beginnings of the two last suras in the Qur'an.
Awliyā’ (أولیاء)
Friends, protectors, helpers, caretaker, maintainer. (singular: wali)
‘Awrah (عورة)
The parts of the body, male or female, must be covered in public but not between spouses, such as, body parts must be concealed of a woman before non-related men.(non-related men means she can marry those men lawfully).
Āyah (آیة), plural āyāt (آیات)
A sign. More specifically, a verse in the Qur'an.
Āyatullāh (آیة الله, also spelled Ayatollah)
Sign of God Title given to highly ranked religious scholars in Sh'ia sect.
[سمول]ب

B.B.H.N
Blessed be His Name acronym for SAWS see P.B.U.H.
Baghawat
insurgency against a legitimate government
بیعة
(بیعة) : pledge
باطل
(باطل) : void
بیت الله (بیت الله)
A mosque, literally "house of God".
برکت (برکة)
a form of blessing. Also, spiritual wisdom and blessing transmitted from master to pupil. The special favor or divine grace which is possessed by the "friends of God," or Sufi masters in particular.
BarakAllahu Feekum
may Allah bless you; response to expression of thanks.
برزخ (برزخ)
The one-way barrier between the mortal realm and the spirit world which the deceased soul crosses and waits for qiyamah judgment.
بشر (بشر)
انسان(s). Literally means 'face' but generally it refers to a person (سړی/ښځه).
بصیرت (بصیرة)
Insight, discernment, perceptivity, deep knowledge. Sometimes used by Sufis to denote the ability to directly perceive a transcendental Truth.
Batin
The interior or hidden meaning. A person who devotes himself to studying such hidden meanings is a batini.
بدعت (بدعة)
Innovation in religion, i.e. inventing new methods of worship. Bad Bid'ahs in Islam are considered a deviation and a serious sin by many Muslims.
Bid'ah sayyi'ah
Inquiry prohibited in Islam.
بنت (بنت)
لور
بسم الله الرحمن الرحیم (بسم الله الرحمن الرحیم)
"In the name of God, Most Gracious, Most Merciful".
Burda (بردة)
not an Arabic term; means "curtain" in Persian. Means covering or to cover.
Bay‘ah (بیعة)
an oath of allegiance to a leader, traditionally the Caliph or Imam.
[سمول]خ

Caliph (خلیفة khalīfah)
literally successor; refers to the successor of the Prophet Muhammad, the ruler of an Islamic theocratic monarchy
[سمول]د

Dahri
atheist - from the root ad dahr meaning time. In Islam, atheists are seen as those who think that time only destroys, hence the term ad dahriyyah for the concept of atheism.
Dajjal (دجّال)
an Islamic figure similar to the Antichrist; means "liar" or "deceiver".
Dallal (ضلال)
going astray.
Dar al'Ahd (دار العهد)
the Ottoman Empire's relationship with its Christian tributary states.
Dar al-Amn (دار الأمن)
means house of safety; refers to status of a Muslim living in some of the Western world.
Dar ad-Dawa (دار الدعوة)
a region where Islam has recently been introduced.
Dar al-Harb (دار الحرب)
means house of war; refers to areas outside Muslim rule at war with Muslim states.
Dar al-Islam (دار الإسلام)
the abode, or land, of Islam.
Dar al-Kufr (دار الکفر)
means domain of disbelief; the term originally refers to the Quraish-dominated society of Mecca between Prophet Mohammed's flight to Medina (the Hijra) and the city's conquest.
Dar as-Sulh ( دارالصلح )
domain of agreement
Dar ash-Shahada (دار الشهادة)
See Dar al-Amn
Darūd
blessing
Da`wah (الدعوة)
the call to Islam. (See aslim taslam)
Darwīš (درویش)
an initiate of the Sufi Path, one who practices Sufism
Dhikr
A devotional practice whereby the name of God is repeated in a rhythmical manner
Dhikr (ذکر) or zikr (in Persian/Urdu)
remembrance of God; spiritual exercise; Muslims believe that the primary function of prophets is to remind people of God.
Dhimmi (ذمّی)
"Protected person"; Jews and Christians (and sometimes others,[1] such as Buddhists, Sikhs, Hindus, and Zoroastrians), living in an Islamic state whose right to practice their religion is tolerated under Islamic law.
Dhuhr
the second obligatory daily prayer.
Dīn (الدین)
the way of life based on Islamic revelation; the sum total of a Muslim's faith and practice. Dīn is often used to mean the faith and religion of Islam.
Diyya (دیة)
fine for unintentional murder.
Dua (دعاء)
personal prayer, supplication
Dhuhr (الظهر)
second salat prayer
Dunya (دنیا)
The physical Universe, as opposed to the Hereafter
[سمول]E

Ethiaat
Also Ahwat. A Precaution, either obligatory or optional.[2]
Ethiaat-Mustahabbi
A preferred precation.[2]
Ethiaat-Waajib
An obligatory precation.[2]
[سمول]F

Fajarah (فجرة)
Wicked evil doers. Plural of "Fajir" (فاجر).
Fajr (فجر)
morning, as in the morning prayer. The time of the day when there is light in the horizon before sunrise.
Falāḥ (فلاح)
deliverance, salvation, well-being
Falsafah
"philosophy" The methods and content of Greek philosophy which were brought into Islam. A person who tries to interpret Islam though rationalist philosophy was called a faylasuf ("philosopher").
Fanā' (فناء)
Sufi term meaning extinction - to die to this life while alive. Having no existence outside of God.
Faqih (pl. fuqaha)
One who has a deep understanding of Islam, its laws, and jurisprudence. (see fiqh)
Al-Faraj
the return of the Shia Mahdi
Farḍ (فرض), plural Fara’id (فرأض)
a religious duty, or an obligatory action: praying 5 times a day is fard Neglecting a fard will result in a punishment in the hereafter. (See wajib)
Fard ayn ( الواجب الع)
obligatory on every individual Muslim to aid in any way he can.
Fard kifayah (الواجب الکفائی)
an obligation on the Muslim community as a whole, from which some are freed if others take it up such as for jihad.
Fāsiq (فاسق)
anyone who has violated Islamic law; usually refers to one whose character has been corrupted (plural "fasiqun").
Fatiha
the short, opening sura of the Qur'an, which begins "In the name of God, the Merciful, the Compassionate. Praise be to God, the Lord of the Worlds..." These words hold an important place in Muslim liturgies and forms the core of the salat.
Fatwā (فتوى)
legal opinion of an (alim) binding on him and on those who follow his taqlid
Fi Amanillah
May Allah protect you. Said when a person departs.
Fiqh (فقه)
jurisprudence built around the shariah by custom (al-urf). Literally means "deep understanding", refers to understanding the Islamic laws. (see faqih)
Fi sabil Allah (فی سبیل الله)
for the sake of Allah; common Islamic expression for performing acts such as charity or Jihad and for 'qatlu' (fighting in mortal combat for the sake of Allah
Fitna (pl. fitan) (فتنة)
trial or tribulation; also refers to any period of disorder, such as a civil war, or the period of time before the end of the world or any civil strife.
Fiṭrah (فطرة)
innate disposition towards virtue, knowledge, and beauty. Muslims believe every child is born with fitrah.
Furqān (فرقان)
the criterion (of right and wrong, true and false); for example, the Qur'an as furqan.
[سمول]G

Ghafara (غفر)
(verb in past tense) to forgive, to cover up (sins). A characteristic of God.
Ghaflah (غفلة)
heedlessness, forgetfulness of God, indifference
Ghayb (غیب)
the unseen, unknown.
Ghasbi
possessed unlawfully
Ghusl (غسل)
full ablution of the whole body (see wudu). Ghusl janaba is the mandatory shower after having sexual discharge.
[سمول]H

Hadath akbar
major ritual impurity which requires Niyyat for cleaning.
Hadath asghar
minor ritual impurity
Hadeeth Mashhoor
Well-known hadith; a hadith which reported by one, two, or more Companions from the Prophet or from another Companion, but has later become well-known and transmitted by an indefinite number of people during the first and second generation of Muslims.
Hadha min fadhle Rabbi (هَذَا مِن فَضْلِ رَبِّی)
Qur'anic expression and phrase meaning This is by the Grace of my Lord.
Hādī (هادی)
a guide, one who guides; A Muslim name for God is The Guide, or Al-Hadi.
Hadith (حدیث ḥadīth) plural ahādīth
literally "speech"; recorded saying or tradition of the Prophet Muhammad validated by isnad; with sira these comprise the sunnah and reveal shariah
Ḥāfiẓ (حافظ)
someone who knows the Qur'an by heart. Literal translation = memorizer or Protector.
Haid
menstruation
Hajj (الحجّ haj)
pilgrimage to Mecca. Sunnis regard this as the fifth Pillar of Islam
Hajj al Tamattu
performing `Umrah during the Hajj season, and on the Day of Tarwiah a pilgrim gets into the state of Ihram for Hajj. Before making 'Umrah, approach the Miqat and declare the intention. End by sacrificing an animal.
Hajj al Qiran
At Miqat, declare intention to perform both Hajj and `Umrah together. After throwing the Jamrah of Al-`Aqabah, and getting hair shaved or cut that take off his Ihram garments and sacrifice animal.
Hajj al Ifrad
At Miqat, declare intention for Hajj only. Maintain Ihram garments up to the Day of Sacrifice. No offering is required from him.
Ḥākim (حاکم)
a ruler's or gubernatorial title.
Hakmiya
sovereignty.
Ḥalāl (حلال)
lawful, permitted, good, beneficial, praiseworthy, honourable. (See mustahabb, mandub)
Halaqa
A gathering or meeting for the primary purpose of learning about Islam.
Ḥanīf (حنیف)
pre-Islamic non-Jewish or non-Christian monotheists. Plural: ḥunafā' (حنفاء).
Haqq (‍حق)
truth, reality, right, righteousness. Al-Haqq is one of 99 names of God.
Ḥarām (حرام)
forbidden. An individual is rewarded for keeping away from haram done out of obedience, (rather than out of fear, shyness or the inability to do it.) Antonym: halal. (See mazur, makrouh)
Ḥaram (حرم)
sanctuary.
Ḥasan (حسن)
Good, beautiful, admirable. Also a categorization of a hadith's authenticity as "acceptable". (other categorizations include authenic and fabricated).
Hawaa (pl. ahwaa')
Vain or egotistical desire; individual passion; impulsiveness.
Hidāyah (هدایة)
guidance from God.
Ḥijāb (حجاب)
literally "cover". It describes the self-covering of the body for the purposes of modesty and dignity; broadly, a prescribed system of attitudes and behaviour regarding modesty and dignity. (See abayah, al-amira, burnuk, burqa, chador, jilbab, khimar, milfeh, niqab, purdah, shayla)
Hijra (الهجرة)
Muhammad and his followers' emigration from Mecca to Medina. Literally, "migration". This holiday marks the beginning of the Muslim New Year on the first day of the month of Muharram. See Rabi Al-Awwal and abbreviation A.H..
Hikmah
Literally this means "wisdom" and refers to the highest possible level of understanding attainable by a Muslim. In particular, it refers to the illuminative, mystical sort of wisdom which a Gnostic or Sufi might accomplish.
Ḥimā (حمى)
wilderness reserve, protected forest, grazing commons, important to khalifa
Ḥizb (حزب)
One half of a juz', or roughly 1/60th of the Qur'an
Houri (حوریة ḥūrīya; pl. ḥūrīyāt حوریات)
beautiful and pure young men and women, that Muslims believe inhabit Paradise, or Heaven.
Hudā (هدى)
Guidance.
Hudna (هدنة)
Truce. Cease-fire (often temporary)
Ḥudūd (حدود) (sing. hadd)
Literally, limits or boundaries. Usually refers to limits placed by Allah on man; penalties of the Islamic law (sharia) for particular crimes described in the Qur'an - intoxication, theft, rebellion, adultery and fornication, false accusation of adultery, and apostasy. (See ta'zeer)
Hujjaj
Pilgrim
Ḥukm (حکم)
ruling in the Qur'an or Sunnah
[سمول]I

`Ibādah (عبادة)
worship, but not limited to ritual: all expressions of servitude to Allah, including the pursuit of knowledge, living a pious life, helping, charity, and humility, can be considered ibadah.
Iblīs (إبلیس)
a jinn banished to Hell for his arrogance and disobedience; aka Satan : derived from the Greek Diabolos or Devil He is the equivalent of Lucifer.
`Id (عید)
festival or celebration.
`Id ul-Adha (عید الأضحى)
"the Festival of Sacrifice." The four day celebration starting on the tenth day of Dhul-Hijja.
`Id ul-Fitr (عید الفطر)
"the Festival of Fitr (Breaking the fast)." A religious festival that marks the end of the fast of Ramadan.
I'dad Al-'oda (إعداد العُدَّةِ)
"preparation for battle" according to Qur'an
Ifṭār (إفطار)
a meal eaten by Muslims breaking their fast after sunset during the month of Ramadan.
Iḥrām (إحرام)
state of consecration for hajj. Includes dress and or prayer.
Iḥsān (إحسان)
perfection in worship, such that Muslims try to worship God as if they see Him, and although they cannot see Him, they undoubtedly believe He is constantly watching over them.
Ijaz (إعجاز)
miracle, the character of the Qur'an in both form and content.
Ijazah (إجازة)
a certificate authorizing one to transmit a subject or text of Islamic knowledge
Ijmā` (إجماع)
the consensus of either the ummah (or just the ulema) - one of four bases of Islamic Law. More generally, political consensus itself. Shi'a substitute obedience to the Imam; opposite of ikhtilaf
Ijtihād (اجتهاد)
During the early times of Islam, the possibility of finding a new solution to a juridical problem. Has not been allowed in conservative Islam since the Middle Ages. However, Liberal movements within Islam generally argue that any Muslim can perform ijtihad, given that Islam has no generally accepted clerical hierarchy or bureaucratic organization. The opposite of ijtihad is taqlid (تقلید), Arabic for "imitation".
Ikhtilaf (اختلاف)
disagreement among the madhhabs (scholars) of a religious principle; opposite of ijma.
Ikraam (إکرام)
honouring, hospitality, generosity - Dhul jalaali wal ikraam is one of the 99 names of Allah.
Ilāh (إله)
deity, a god; including gods worshiped by polytheists.
`Ilm (علم)
all varieties of knowledge, usually a synonym for science
Imām (إمام)
literally, leader; e.g. a man who leads a community or leads the prayer; the Shi'a sect use the term only as a title for one of the twelve Allah-appointed successors of Prophet Muhammad.
Imamah (إمامة) or imamate
successorship of Prophet Muhammad and the leadership of mankind.
Imān (إیمان)
personal faith
Innaa Lillaahi Wa Innaa Ilayhi Raaji'oon
To Allah we belong and to Him is our return - said to mourners
Infāq (إنفاق)
the habitual inclination to give rather than take in life; the basis for charity
Injīl (الإنجیل)
Arabic term for the holy book called The Gospel said to have been given to Jesus, who is known as Isa in Arabic; Muslims believe the holy book has been lost and the New Testament gospels (Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John) are not the word of Allah, only Christian stories about Jesus.
Insha'Allah (إن شاء الله)
If it is God's(Allah's) will
Iqamah (إقامة)
the second call to prayer. Similar to the azhan.
Irtidad (ارتداد)
apostasy (see murtadd). Also riddah ردة
`Īsā (عیسى)
Jesus - 'Isa ibn Maryam (English: Jesus son of Mary), a matronymic (since he had no biological father. The Qur'an asserts that Allah has no sons and therefore, 'Isa is not the son of Allah. Muslims honor 'Isa as a nabi and rasoul.
`Ishā' (عشاء)
night; the fifth salat prayer
Islam (الإسلام) (مرسته·مالومات)
"submission to God". The Arabic root word for Islam means submission, obedience, peace, and purity.
Isnād (إسناد)
chain of transmitters of any given hadith
Isra (الإسراء)
the night journey during which Muhammad (محمّد)is said to have visited Heaven. See miraj.
Istigfar (استغفار)
requesting forgiveness
Istihada (استحاضة)
vaginal bleeding except Haid and Nifas
Istislah (استصلاح)
public interest - a source of Islamic Law.
Istish'hād (استشهاد)
martyrdom.
Itaqu
The faithful who fear Allah.
Ithim (إثم)
Negative reward for bad deeds that is tallied on qiyamah(judgment day.) Opposite of thawab.
Itikaf
seclusion in the masjid for the purpose of worship usually performed during the last 10 days of Ramadan.
Itmām al-hujjah (إتمام الحجة)
clarification of truth in its ultimate form.
[سمول]J

Jaa'iz
That which is allowed or permissible. As a rule, everything that is not prohibited is allowed. (See halal, mustahabb, mandub)
Jahannam (جهنم)
the Hell-fire; Hell
Jāhiliyyah (الجاهلیّة)
the time of ignorance before Islam was realized. Describes polytheistic religions.
Jahl (جهل)
ignorance, arrogance.
Jalsa - sitting.
Jāmi‘ah (جامعة)
"gathering"; i.e. a university, a mosque, or more generally, a community or association.
Janaba
A ceremonial impurity that necessitates full ghusl ablution
Janaza (جنازة)
funeral prayer
Jannah (جنة)
Paradise, Heaven, the Garden
Jazakallahu Khayran (جزاک الله خیر)
"May God reward you for the good." Islamic expression of gratitude.
Jihād (جهاد)
struggle. Any earnest striving in the way of God, involving personal, physical, for righteousness and against wrong-doing;
Jihād al Saghir
Offensive jihad declared by caliph.
Jihād al talab
Offensive jihad.
Jihād al daf’a
Defensive jihad.
Jilbāb (جلباب)
(pl. jalabib) a long, flowing, baggy garment worn by some to fulfill the mandates of sartorial hijab. Some more conservative Muslims believe that jilbāb is incumbent upon Muslim women to wear this as a sign of modesty. (See abaya. burka, chador)
Jinn (جنّ)
An invisible being of fire
Jizya (جزیة)
A tax specified in the Koran (9:29) to be paid by non-Muslim males living under Muslim political control.
Juhud
To deny. Jaahid (the denier). Disbelief out of rejection. When there comes to them that which they [should] have recognized, they refuse to believe in (kafaru) it. ( 2:89) Accordingly, juhud includes rejection (kufr at-taktheeb) and resistance (kufr al-‘inaad)
Jumu‘ah (جمعة)
Friday prayer
Junub
an unclean state of body as in breaking Wudu
Janabat
an unclean state of body caused by discharge of semen or sexual intercourse
Juz' (جزء)
one of thirty parts of the Qur'an
[سمول]K

Ka‘bah (الکعبة)
cube-house; the cube-shaped building i.e. in Mecca toward which Muslims pray.
Kāfir (کافر)
from the word kafara - "to hide." Those who deliberately hide the truth; unbelievers, truth-concealers; one who is ungrateful. Plural: Kāfirūn. Extreme care ought to be taken with this word, as it is was (and is) occasionally misused as an offensive term for black people by white South Africans.
Kalam (علم الکلم)
Literally, `words' or `speech,' and referring to oration. The name applied to the discipline of philosophy and theology concerned specifically with the nature of faith, determinism and freedom, and the nature of the divine attributes.
Khair
Every kind of good
Khalīfah (خلیفة)
Caliph, more generally, one performing the duties of khilafa.
Khalil (خلیل)
devoted friend
Khalq
Creation - the act of measuring; determining, estimating and calculating. Khalq is the noun form of the verb khalaqa (see bara, sawwara).
Al-khaliq
The Creator, Allah.
Khamar
Intoxicant: wine.
Khāṭib (خاطب)
the speaker at the Friday Muslim prayer, or Jumu'ah prayer.
Khatm
Complete recitation of the Qur'an.
Kharāj (خراج)
a land tax.
Khayr
goodness. See birr (righteousness) See qist (equity) See 'adl (equilibrium and justice) See haqq (truth and right) See ma'ruf (known and approved) See taqwa (piety.)
Khilaaf
Controversy, dispute, discord.
Khilāfah (خلافة)
Man's trusteeship and stewardship of Earth; Most basic theory of the Caliphate; Flora and fauna as sacred trust; Accountability to; God for harms to nature, failure to actively care and maintain. Three specific ways in which khalifa is manifested in Muslim practice are the creation of haram to protect water, hima to protect other species (including those useful to man), and by resisting infidel domination over Muslim lands, in jihad.
Khalīfāt Rashīdūn
four first caliphs, believed by most Muslims to be most righteous rulers in history
Khimār (خمار) (pl. khumur)
headcovering (Q. 24:31).
Khitan (ختان)
Male circumcision.
Khuluq
ethics
Khushu' - humility, devotion, concentration (especially in prayer).
Khuṭbah (خطبة)
the sermon at Jumu'ah prayer.
Kibr - pride, arrogance
Kibar - old age
Kitāb (کتاب)
book; The Qur'an is often referred to as "Al-Kitāb" (The Book).
Kufr (کفر)
In Arabic - ungratefulness and disbelief in God and denial of the truth.
Kufrul-hukmi
Disbelief from judgment.
Kufrul-'Inaad
Disbelief out of stubbornness
Kufrul-Inkaar
Disbelief out of arrogance and pride.
Kufrul-Istibdaal
Disbelief because of trying to substitute Allaah's Laws.
Kufrul-Istihaal
Disbelief out of trying to make HARAM into HALAL.
Kufrul-Istihzaha
Disbelief due to mockery and derision
Kufrul jahli
Disbelief from not being aware of or not understanding.
Kufrul-juhudi
Disbelief from obstinacy after being presented with truth.
Kufrul-Nifaaq
Disbelief out of hypocrisy.
Kufrul-I'raadh
Disbelief due to avoidance.
Kun (کن)
God's command to the universe, 'Be!' is sufficient to create it.
[سمول]L

Lā ilāha ill-Allāh (لاإله إلا الله)
"There is no god other than Allah." The most important expression in Islam. It is part of the first pillar of Islam. Also is the message of all the Prophets, such as Abraham, Moses, Jesus and Muhammad.
Labbayk Allahuma ()
Allah, Here I am (said during hajj)
Laghw (لغو)
Dirty, false, evil vain talk
La‘nah (لعنة)
Imploration for withdrawal of God's mercy
Laylat al-Qadr (لیلة القدر)
the Night of Power, towards the end of Ramadan, when Muhammad received the first revelation of the Qur'an.
[سمول]M

Madh'hab (مذهب)
(pl. Madhahib) school of religious jurisprudence, school of thought
Madrasah (مدرسة)
school, university
Maghrib (مغرب)
the fourth daily salat prayer
Mahdi (مهدی)
"a guide". More specifically al-Mahdi (the guide) is a figure who will appear with Prophet Jesus before the end of time, when God allows it, to bring world peace, order and justice, after it has been overcome with injustice and aggression. The Sunnis regard someone else as the Mahdi.
Mahdur ad-damm
he whose blood must be wasted
Mahram (محرم)
a relative of the opposite gender usually described as being "within the forbidden limits"; a better description is "within the protected limits". means relatives who one can appear before without observing hijab and who one cannot marry.
Makrūh
Means "detested", though not haraam (forbidden); something that is disliked or offensive. If a person commits the Makruh, he does not accumulate ithim but avoiding the Makhruh is rewarded with thawab.
Malā’ikah (ملائکة)
angels (Sing. Malak). It was one of these mala'ika, Jibril (Gabriel) who delivered Allah's revelation to Muhammad.
Ma malakat aymanukum (ما ملکت أیمانکم)
one's rightful spouse (literally: what your right hands possess)
Mandub
commendable or recommended. Failure to do it would not be a sin. (See halal mustahabb)
Mansukh
That which is abrogated. The doctrine of al-Nasikh wal-Mansukh (abrogation) of certain parts of the Qur'anic revelation by others. The principle is mentioned in the Qur'an (2:106) see naskh.
Manzil (منزل)
one of seven equal parts of the Qur'an.
Ma‘rūf (معروف)
consensus of the community
Maqaṣid (مقصد)
goals or purposes; such as the purposes of Islamic law
Masaleh : public interests
Masha Allah (ما شاء الله)
Allah has willed it.
Masīḥ (مسیح)
the (Biblical) Messiah, Jesus Christ.
Masjid (مسجد) pl. masājid, مساجد
place of prayer; mosque
Masjid al-Haram
the area around the Kaaba.
Mawali or mawala (موالی)
Non-­Arab Muslims
Mawlā (pl. mawli)
protector or supporter.
Mawlānā (مولانا)
an Arabic word literally meaning "our lord" or "our master". It is used mostly as a title preceding the name of a respected religious leader, in particular graduates of religious institutions. The term is sometimes used to refer to Rumi.
Maulvi (مولوی)
an honorific Islamic religious title often, but not exclusively, given to Muslim religious scholars or Ulema preceding their names. Maulvi generally means any religious cleric or teacher.
Mecca (مکّة Makkah)
the holiest city in Islam
Medina (مدینة Madīnah)
"city"; Medinat-un-Nabi means "the City of the Prophet." See Hijra (Islam).
Mi‘ād (معاد)
the Resurrection; God will resurrect all of humankind to be judged. Shi'as regard this as the fifth Pillar of Islam.
Mihrab (محراب)
a niche in the wall of all mosques, indicating the direction of prayer
Millah
In Arabic, millah means "religion," but it has only been used to refer to religions other than Islam, which is din.
Millet
In an Islamic state, "Ahl al Kitab" may continue to practice their former religion in a semi-autonomous community termed the millet.
Minaret (منارة)
a tower built onto a mosque from the top of which the call to prayer is made
Minbar (منبر)
a raised pulpit in the mosque where the Imam stands to deliver sermons
Minhaj (منهج)
methodology, e.g. methods, rules, system, procedures.
Miqat (میقات )
intended place
Miraj (المعراج)
the Ascension to the Seven Heavens during the Night Journey See also: isra
Mu'adhdhin (مأذن)
a person who performs the call to prayer
Mu‘awwidhatayn (المعوذتین)
suras Al-Falaq and an-Nas, the "Surahs of refuge", should be said to relieve suffering (also protect from Black Magic)
Mubāḥ (مباح)
literally permissible; neither forbidden nor commended. Neutral. (See halal)
Mubaligh (مبلغ)
person who recites Qur'an
Muftī (مفتى)
an Islamic scholar who is an interpreter or expounder of Islamic law (Sharia), capable of issuing fataawa (plural of "fatwa").
Muhajabah (محجبة)
woman who wears hijab (polite form of hijabi).
Muhammadun rasulullah
"Muhammad is the messenger of God." This statement is the second part of the first pillar of Islam. This is the second most important statement in Islam.
Mufsidūn (مفسدون)
evil-doer a person who wages jihad (war) not in accordance with the Qur'an. Plural mufsideen.
Muhsin (محسن)
a person who performs good deed. Plural muhsineen. Opposite of Mufsidun.
Muhājirūn (مهاجرون)
The first Muslims that accompanied Muhammad when he traveled to Medina.
Muhartiq ()
heretic.
Mujāhid (مجاهد)
a fighter for Islam. Plural mujahidīn.
Mujtahid (مجتهد)
a scholar who uses reason for the purpose of forming an opinion or making a ruling on a religious issue. Plural: Mujtahidun.
Mullah (ملا)
are Islamic clergy. Ideally, they should have studied the Qur'an, Islamic traditions (hadith), and Islamic law (fiqh).
Mū’min (مؤمن)
A Muslim who observes the commandments of the Qur'an.
Munafiq (منفق)
hypocrite. Plural: Munafiqun
Muntaqabah (منتقبة) pl. muntaqabāt (منتقبات)
woman who wears niqab
Murabaha
a type of sharia-compliant mortgage (see Ijara)
Murshid (مرشد)
a Sufi teacher
Murtadd (مرتد) female apostate is Murtadah
apostate (see irtidad see mahdur ad-damm.)
Mushaf
a copy, codex or redaction of the Qur'an.
Mushrik (pl. mushrikoon)
One who associates others in worship with God; a polytheist.
Muslim (مسلم)
a follower of the religion of Islam. One who submits their will to Allah (God)
Mustaḥabb (مستحبّ)
commendable or recommended. (See halal, mandub)
Mut‘ah (متعه)
literally joy; a type of temporary marriage practiced only by the Shī‘ah; or a practice between ‘Umrah and Ḥajj.
Muta'sibūn
fanatics
Mutaween (مطوعین) Singular = mutawa
Religious police.
Mutawātir (متواتر)
"agreed upon"--used to describe hadith that were narrated by many witnesses through different narration chains (isnads) leading back to Muhammad
[سمول]N

Nabī (نبی)
literally, prophet. In the Islamic context, a Nabi is a man sent by God to give guidance to man, but not given scripture. The Prophet Abraham was a Nabi. This is in contrast to Rasul, or Messenger. Plural: Anbiya. See: Rasul.
Nafs (النفس)
soul, one's self
Nafila
An optional, supererogatory practice of worship, in contrast to farida
Najāsah
Impurity
Najasat, Najis
an unclean thing
Naji
impure
Nakir and Munkar (نکیر و منکر)
two malaikah who test the faith of the dead in their graves
Naqîra (نقیرا)
speck on the back of a date stone
Nasīha
advice
Naskh (نسخ)
The doctrine of al-Nasikh wal-Mansukh (abrogation) of certain parts of the Qur'anic revelation by others. The principle is mentioned in the Qur'an (2:106) see mansukh.
Nass (نصّ)
a known, clear legal injunction
Nifas
the bleeding after childbirth (see Haid)
Nifaq
falsehood; dishonesty
Niyyat
intention
Niqāb (نقاب)
veil covering the face
Nubuwwah (نبوّة)
prophethood. Shi'as regard this as the third Pillar of Islam.
Nukra
a great munkar - prohibited, evil, dreadful thing.
Nūr (نور)
light. Muslims believe angels were created from light and jinn from fire.
[سمول]P

P.B.U.H.
an ancronym which stands for "peace be unto him" a blessing which is affixed to Muhammad's name whenever it is written. In some circles and English writings, Sufis regard PBUH to signify "Peace and Blessings Upon Him" (the Rasul or Messenger of Allah)[3]. These are the the primary English explications of the P.B.U.H. acronym. The Arabic version is S.A.W. ; Prophet : A person who has had messages from Allah. (see nabi).
[سمول]Q

Qadhf
false imputation of unchastity specifically punished by sharia.
Qadar
predestination.
Qādī (قاضی)
judge of Islamic Law
Qatlu nafsi-hi
suicide is forbidden in Islam
Qiblah
the direction Muslims face during prayer
Qitaal fee sybil Allah ( وقاتلوا فی سبیل الله )
fight in the cause of Allah, a Qur'anic commandment.
Qiyāmah
resurrection; return of the dead for the Day of Judgment
Qiṣāṣ (قصاص)
equitable retribution - a fine for murder if the heirs forgive the perpetrator. (See hudud, tazeer)
Qiyam
to stand, a position of salah prayer
Qiyās (القیاس)
analogy - foundation of legal reasoning and thus fiqh
Qudsī
classification of a hadith that are believed to be narrated by Muhammad from God.
Qurbat
closeness to God. Term is associated with Sufism.
Qur’ān (القرآن)
Muslims believe the Qur'an (Koran) to be the literal word of God and the culmination of God's revelation to mankind, revealed to prophet Muhammad in the year AD 610.
[سمول]R

Rabb (ربّ)
Lord, Sustainer, Cherisher, Master.
Radiyallahu anha
May Allah be pleased with her.
Radiyallahu anhu
May Allah be pleased with him.
Radiyallahu anhuma
May Allah be pleased with them.
Radiyallahu anhum
May Allah be pleased with them.
Rahman (رحمن)
Merciful; Ar-Rahman (الرحمن) means "The Most Merciful"
Rahim (رحیم)
compassionate; Ar-Rahim (الرحیم) means "The Most Compassionate" as in the Basmala
Rajm
the practice of stoning
Raka'ah
one unit of Islamic prayer, or Salat. Each daily prayer is made up of a different number of raka'ah.
Ramadhan
month of fasting when the Qur'an was first revealed
Rashidun
Sunnis consider the first four caliphs as the "orthodox" or "rightly guided" caliphs. They were Abu Bakr, 'Umar, 'Uthman and 'Ali.
Rasul (رسول)
messenger; Unlike prophets (Nabi), messengers are given scripture. Moses, David, Jesus and Mohammed are considered messengers. All messengers are considered prophets, but not all prophets are given scripture. See: Nabi.
Riba (ربا)
interest, the charging and paying of which is forbidden by the Qur'an
Ribat
Guarding Muslims from infidels
Riddah (ارتداد)
apostasy, in which a person abandons Islam for another faith or no faith at all.
Risalah
literally, message or letter. Used both in common parlance for mail correspondences, and in religious context as divine message.
Ruh (روح)
spirit; the divine breath which God blew into the clay of Adam.
Rukn plural arkan
means what is inevitable. One of the five pillars of Islam. (See fard, wajib)
Ruk'u
the bowing performed during salat.
[سمول]S

Ṣabr
patience, endurance, self-restraint
Sadaqah (صدقة)
charity; voluntary alms above the amount for zakat.
Sahabah (الصحابه) (sing. Sahābi)
companions of Muhammad. A list of the best-known Companions can be found at List of companions of Muhammad.
Sahih
"Sound in isnad." A technical attribute applied to the "isnad" of a hadith.
Sakina
divine "tranquility" or "peace" which descends upon a person when the Qur'an is recited.
Salaf (السلف الصالح)
(righteous) predecessors/ancestors. In Islam, Salaf is generally used to refer to the first three generations of Muslims.
Ṣalah (صلاة) sala(t)
any one of the daily five obligatory prayers. Sunnis regard this as the second Pillar of Islam
Salaat al-Istikharah
Prayer for guidance is done in conjunction with two rakaahs of supererogatory prayer.
Salām (سلام)
peace (see sulh)
Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam (صلى الله علیه و سلم)
"May Allah bless him and grant him peace." The expression should be used after stating Prophet Muhammad's name. See abbreviation: S.A.W. or S.A.W.S. also P.B.U.H.
Samad
eternal, absolute; Muslims believe Allah is "The Eternal."
Salsabil
a river in heaven (al-firdaus)
Sawa
awakening, revival
S.A.W. (or S.A.W.S.)
Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam (صلى الله علیه و سلم). See P.B.U.H.
Ṣawm (صَوم)
fasting during the month of Ramadhan. The word sawm is derived from Syriac sawmo.
Sayyid (سیّد)
master or a descendant of a relative of Muhammad, usually a title given to a descendant who comes from Hussayn.
Sema
refer to some of the ceremonies used by various sufi orders
Shahādah (الشهادة)
The testimony of faith: La ilaha illa Allah. Muhammadun rasulullah. ("There is no god but Allah. Muhammad is the messenger of Allah."). Sunnis regard this as the first Pillar of Islam. Also may be used as a synonym for the term Istish'hād meaning martyrdom.
Shahīd (شهید) pl. shuhada
witness, martyr. Usually refers to a person killed whilst fighting in "jihad fee sybil Allah" (jihad for the sake of Allah). Often used in modern times for deaths in a political cause (including victims of soldiers, deaths in battle, et cetera) which are viewed by some Muslims as a spiritual cause not just a political cause. But the real meaning of Jihad is to defend Islam in any way; thus, it could be in an economic way or could refer to fighting for the rights of the oppressed or the believers; most often it refers to mastering one's own inclination for evil and shirk.
Shaykh (شیخ)
a spiritual master, Muslim clergy
Sharī‘ah (الشریعة)
"the path to a watering hole"; the eternal ethical code and moral code based on the Qur'an and Sunnah; basis of fiqh
Sharīf (شریف)
a title bestowed upon the descendants of Muhammad through Hasan, son of his daughter Fatima Zahra and son-in-law Ali ibn Abi Talib
Shaytan (شیطان)
Satan, the Devil; also known as Iblis
Shī‘ah (الشیعة)
Branch of Islam that encourages independent and modern interpretation of scripture
Shirk (شرک)
idolatry; polytheism; the sin of believing in any divinity except God and of associating other gods with God.
Shūrā (شورى)
consultation
Majlis ash-shūrā (مجلس الشورى)
advisory council in a Caliphate
Sidrat al-Muntaha (سدرة المنتهى )
a lotus tree that marks the end of the seventh heaven, the boundary where no creation can pass.
Sirah (السیرة)
life or biography of the Prophet Muhammad; his moral example - with hadith this comprises the sunnah
Sirat al-Mustaqim
the Straight Path
Subah Sadiq
true dawn
Subhanahu wa ta'ala (abbreviated S.W.T.)
expression used following written name or vocalization of Allah in Arabic meaning highly praised and glorified is He.
Subhan'allah
expression used by Muslims to express strong feelings of joy or relief.
Ṣūfī (صوفی)
a Muslim mystic; See: Sufism (tasawwuf).
Suhūr
the meal eaten by fasting Muslims just before dawn.
Sujud
kneeling down, a position of salat.
Sukuk
bond that generates revenue from sales, profits, or leases rather than interest.
Sulh (صلح)
is derived from the Arabic word musalaha it is a tool at the disposal of an Islamic commander to be offered to the enemy as a respite from military Jihad. (see hudna)
Sunnah (السنّة) or sunnah al-Nabi (سنّة النبی)
the "path" or "example" of the Prophet Muhammad, i.e., what the Prophet did or said or agreed to during his life. He is considered by Muslims to be the best human moral example, the best man to follow.
Sunnat
an act which the Prophet performed; not required but carries much reward
Sunni (سنّی)
the largest denomination of Islam. The word Sunni comes from the word Sunnah (Arabic: سنة), which means the words and actions or example of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad.
Sūrah (سورة)
chapter; the Qur'an is composed of 114 suras
[سمول]T

Taba'īn (تابعون|تابعین)
followers of the Sahabah
Tafsīr (تفسیر)
exegesis, particularly such commentary on the Qur'an
Taghut (طاغوت) (taghout)
originally Aramaic, meaning "false god"; also tyranny.
Tahajjud (تهجُّد)
optional (supererogatory), late-night (pre-dawn) prayer
Taharah (طهارة)
purification from ritual impurities by means of wudu or ghusl
Tahir (طاهر)
pure, ritually clean
Tahlil
Uttering the formula of faith: "La ilaha illa Allah", i.e. (No god but Allah)
Tahnik
'Tahnik' is an Islamic ceremony of touching the lips of a new born baby with honey, sweet juice or pressed dates.
Taḥrīf (تحریف)
corruption, forgery. Muslims believe the Bible Scriptures were corrupted but the Qur'an is in its original form.
Tajdīd (تجدید)
to purify and reform society in order to move it toward greater equity and justice, literally meaning to make new in present tense
Tajdif (تجدیف)
blasphemy
Tajwīd (تجوید)
a special manner of reciting the Qur'an according to prescribed rules of pronunciation and intonation.
Takaful ( التکتاقل)
Based on sharia Islamic law, it is a form of mutual insurance. See retakaful.
Takbīr (تکبیر)
a proclamation of the greatness of Allah; a Muslim invocation.
Takfir (تکفیر)
declaration of individual or group of previously considered Muslim as kaffir.
Tamaninat
to be motionless
Taqdir
fate, predestination
Taqlīd (تقلید)
to follow the scholarly opinion of one of the four Imams of Islamic Jurispudence.
Taqiyya (تقیّة)
the mostly Shi'a principle that one is allowed to hide one's true beliefs in certain circumstances.
Taqwa (تقوى)
righteousness; goodness; Piety: Taqwa is taken from the verbe Ittaqua, witch means Avoiding, Fearing the punishment from Allah for committing sins. It is piety obtained by fearing the punishment of Allah.
Tarawih (تراویح)
extra prayers in Ramadan after the Isha prayer.
Tarkīb (تَرْکِیب)
the study of Arabic grammar issued from the Qur'an
Ṭarīqah (طریقة)
a Muslim religious order, particularly a Sufi order
Tartīl (ترتیل)
slow, meditative recitation of the Qur'an
Tasawwuf (التصوّف) or Sufism
Tasbih
Uttering the formula: "Subhan Allah", i.e. (Glory be to Allah)
Tashkīl (تشکیل)
vocalization of Arabic text by means of diacritical marks. An integral part of the Arabic writing system. Literally meaning to form or arrange
Taslim (تسلیم)
salutation at the end of prayer
Tatbeer
Shia Ashura ceremony of self-flagellation by hitting head with sword. (See zinjeer)
Tawakul ()
total reliance on Allah.
Tawassul (توسُّل)
asking Allah Almighty through the medium and intercession of another person.
Tawaf (طواف)
circumambulating the Ka'bah during Hajj.
Tawbah (توبه)
repentance
Tawhīd (توحید)
monotheism; affirmation of the Oneness of Allah. Muslims regard this as the first part of the Pillar of Islam, the second part is accepting Muhammad as rasoul (messenger). The opposite of Tawheed is shirk
Tawrat (توراة)
the Torah as revealed to Musa (Moses.)
Tayyib (طیِّب)
all that is good as regards things, deeds, beliefs, persons, foods, etc. Means "pure." The Shahaddath is tayyib. Also, the name by which Turkish people call their present P.M., literally meaning pleasant
Ta'zeer (تعزیر)
Discretionary punishment - a sentence or punishment whose measure is not fixed by the Shari'ah. (See hudud, qisas)
Tazkiyah (تزکیة)
Purification of the Soul.
Thawab (ثواب)
Reward for good deeds that is tallied on qiyamah (judgment day.) Opposite of ithim.
Tilawa (تلاوة)
ritual recitation of passages of the Qur'an.
[سمول]U

Ubudiyah
worship
Udhiyah
sacrifice
‘Ulamā’ (علماء) or ulema
the leaders of Islamic society, including teachers, Imams and judges. Singular alim.
Ummah (الاُمّة) or umma
the global community of all Muslim believers
‘Umrah (عمرة)
the lesser pilgrimage performed in Mecca. Unlike hajj, ‘umrah can be performed throughout the year.
Uqubat
the branch of sharia that deals with punishment. (See hudud, qisas, tazeer)
عرف (عرف)
custom of a given society, leading to change in the فقة
اصول (sing. asl)
Principles, origins.
اصول الفقة
the study of the origins and practice of Islamic jurisprudence (فقة)
[سمول]و

وفات
death (Barah-wafat) Muhammad was born on the twelfth day of Rabi-ul-Awwal, the third month of the Muslim year. His death anniversary also falls on the same day, the word 'barah' standing for the twelve days of Muhammad's sickness.
وحدت الوجود (وحدة الوجود)
"unity of being". Philosophical term used by some Sufis. Related to fanaa
وحیه
revelation or inspiration of God to His prophets for all humankind
Wahn
love of this life and hatred of death
واجب
obligatory or mandatory see fard
Wali (والی)
friend, protector, guardian, supporter, helper
وقف
An endowment of money or property: the return or yield is typically dedicated toward a certain end, for example, to the maintenance of the poor, a family, a village, or a mosque. Plural: Awqaf.
ورق (ورّاق)
traditional scribe, publisher, printer, notary and book copier
Wasat
the middle way, justly balanced, avoiding extremes, moderation
Waseelah
the means by which one achieves nearness to Allah (see tawassul )
وتر (وتر)
a voluntary, optional night prayer of odd numbers rakaats.
وضو (الوضوء)
ablution for ritual purification from minor impurities before صلاة (دا هم وګورۍ غسل)
[سمول]ی

یا الله (یا الله)
ای خدایه!
یاجوج و ماجوج
یاجوج او ماجوج
یقین
certainty, that which is certain
یرحمک الله
May Allah have mercy on you (said when someone sneezes)
یوم الدین
Day of Reckoning, Awe
یوم الغضب
Day of Rage
یوم القیامة (یوم القیامة)
"Day of the Resurrection"; Day of Judgement
[سمول]ز

زبور (زبور)
the Psalms revealed to King David
Zabiha (ذَبِیْحَة) see dhabiha
Islamic method of slaughtering an animal. Using a sharp knife the animal's windpipe, throat and blood vessels of the neck are severed without cutting the spinal cord to ensure that the blood is thoroughly drained before removing the head. See حلال
ظاهر
Exterior meaning
زیدی (الزیدیة)
Islamic sub-sect of Shi'ah, popularly found in Yemen, with similarities to Sunni
زکات (زکاة)Al-Maal
tax, alms, tithe as a Muslim duty; Sunnis regard this as the fourth Pillar of Islam. Neither charity nor derived from Islamic economics, but a religious duty and social obligation.
زکات (زکاة)Al-Fitr
Zalimun
polytheists, wrong-doers, and unjust.
زنا (زناء , زنى)
sexual activity outside of marriage (covering the English words adultery and fornication)
ذوالفقار (ذو الفقار)
Sword of Ali presented to him by Muhammad
[سمول]Notes

Arabic words are created from three-letter "roots" which convey a basic idea. For example, k-t-b conveys the idea of writing. Addition of other letters before, between, and after the root letters produces many associated words: not only "write" but also "book", "office", "library", and "author". The abstract consonantal root for Islam is s-l-m.
Some Islamic concepts are usually referred to in Persian or Turkic. Those are typically of later origin than the concepts listed here; for completeness it may be best to list Persian terms and those unique to Shi'a on their own page, likewise Turkic terms and those unique to the Ottoman period on their own page, as these are culturally very distinct.
The word "crusade" in English is usually translated in Arabic as "Hamlah Ssaleebiyah" which means literally "campaign of Cross-holders" (or close to that meaning). In Arabic text it is "حملة صلیبیة" and the second word comes from "Ssaleeb" which means "cross."
The verses in the Qur'an that Christians usually refer to as jihad verses have the phrase "qitl fee sybil Allah" (fight/kill for the sake of Allah).
Westerners use the terms non-observant (secular), fundamentalist, extremist, reformist or moderate to refer to differing Muslim practices. Muslims use the terms tableeghi, takfiri, ikhwani, shirazzi.[citation needed]
[سمول]References

↑ USC-MSA Compendium of Muslim Texts
↑ 2.0 2.1 2.2 Error on call to template:cite web: Parameters url and title must be specified The Islamic glossary: An explanation of names, terms and Symbols. URL accessed on 2007-12-06.
↑ Charles Hu Winstead, B.A. in Writing, University of Tennessee, Editor and Publisher of The American Vampire Horror Writers Group, and attendee of certain Circles in Kansas City, MO and Seattle, WA.
Suzanne Haneef, What Everyone Should Know about Islam and Muslims, (Kazi Publications, Chicago), popular introduction
Muzaffar Haleem, The Sun is Rising In the West, (Amana Publications, Beltsville, MD 1999).
Ziauddin Sardar, Muhammad for Beginners, Icon Books, 1994, some sloppiness, from very modern Sufi point of view.
Hans Wehr, A Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic (Spoken Language Services, Ithaca, NY, 1976). ed. J. Milton Cowan. ISBN 0-87950-001-8.
[سمول]دا هم وګورۍ

Voiced Dictionary of Islamic and Arabic Key Words
د الله ۹۹ نومونه
List of English words of Arabic origin
List of Christian terms in Arabic
د اسلام پیغمبران
Islamic eschatology
[سمول]باندنۍ تړنې

[1] free expressions with audio
Voiced Dictionary of Islamic and Arabic Key Words
وېشنیزې: د ژباړې لپاره نومول شوی مخونهArticles with unsourced statementsاسلامی وییپانګه

قس عبری

הרשימה שלהלן מסודרת לפי סדר האלפבית העברי.
תוכן עניינים [הצגה]
[עריכה]א

אג'תהאד اجتهاد
מונח במשפט אסלאמי המתאר את תהליך קבלת החלטה משפטית, על בסיס פירוש עצמאי של מקורות הסמכות - הקוראן והסונה (דרך חייו והתנהלותו של הנביא מוחמד). אדם המבצע אג'תהאד הוא מוג'תהד. באסלאם הסוני האג'תהאד נחשב אסור בדורנו, כך ש פוסק ההלכה הסוני בימינו מחויב לפסוק על-פי מסורת הפסיקות מן הדורות שקדמו לו, ולא על-פי פרשנות עצמאית של המקורות המוסלמיים.
אדב أدب
(השורש זהה למלה העברית "אדיבות") מונח שפירושו המקורי: מכלול הידע העיוני וכללי הנימוס הדרושים לאדם משכיל. בעולם הערבי כיום משתמשים במונח הזה בעיקר בשתי משמעויות - נימוס, או "חינוך טוב"; ספרות יפה, ספרות חילונית בעלת ערך אמנותי. למעשה, משמעותו של המונח בתקופת שגשוגה של האימפריה המוסלמית היה רחב יותר. בימי הביניים התפתחה בעולם הערבי סוגה ספרותית המכונה "ספרות אדב". זוהי ספרות אקלקטית במגוון נושאים, שמטרתה הבאת מידע כללי רחב הנחוץ לאדם המשכיל, בפרט לאנשים המשרתים בחצרות שליטים או בתפקידים דומים.
אד'אן أذان
קריאה לאחת מחמש התפילות היומיות הקבועות. הקריאה כוללת נוסח קבוע המורכב ממספר חזרות על השהאדה, על התכביר ועל מילות זירוז למתפללים כגון حیّ على الصلاة (בואו לתפילה), או בשעות הבוקר: الصلاة خیر من النوم - התפילה טובה משינה. את האד'אן קורא המואזין (מואד'ין مؤذن) מצריח המסגד, המכונה מאדַ'נָה (مئذنة). לפי השיעה, הושמטה מקריאת האד'אן האמרה "حیّ على خیر العمل" (מהרו אל העשיה הטובה ביותר) בידי הח'ליף עמר בן אל-ח'טאב משום ששימשה תירוץ למתפללים להשתמט מחובת הלחימה בג'האד
אהל אל-כִּתאב أهل الکتاب (מופיע בעברית בדרך-כלל בתרגום: עם הספר או אנשי הספר)
כינוי בקוראן ליהודים ולנוצרים. על-פי הקוראן, היהדות והנצרות מבוססות על ספרים שכללו דברי אלוהים חיים, אך היהודים והנוצרים שיבשו את המסר האלוהי בספרים האלה. מדברי הקוראן האלה נגזר היחס ליהודים ולנוצרים באסלאם - מחד גיסא אין מצווה לאסלם אותם, אולם מאידך, אסור ללכת בדרכיהם. ל"אנשי הספר" יש זכות לשבת בקרב המוסלמים כל עוד הם מקבלים על עצמם את השלטון המוסלמי. בתקופות מסוימות בהיסטוריה המוסלמית נחשבו גם הזורואסטרים חלק מ"אנשי הספר".
אוּמה או אֻמָה أمـّة
(מילולית: אומה, קהילה) הוא מונח שמתאר בדרך כלל את הקהילה העולמית של המוסלמים, כלומר את כלל המוסלמים ואת כלל המוסדות המוסלמיים בעולם. הפאן-ערבים משתמשים בו כדי לתאר את הקהילה הערבית ברחבי העולם.
איה آیة
(מילולית: "נס" או "מופת") - כינוי לכל אחד מפסוקי הקוראן.
איתאללה או איתוללה آیة الله
(מילולית: מופת האל) הוא שם התואר הדתי העליון באסלאם השיעי. נושא התואר צריך להיות מומחה בתאולוגיה ומשפט מוסלמי.
איתאללה עֻט'מא או איתוללה עֻזמא آیة الله عظمى
(מילולית: איתוללה עליון/גדול) הוא שם התואר הדתי העליון ביותר באסלאם השיעי. בכל רגע נתון קיימים כ-20 איתוללות עליונים. איתאללה עט'מה מכונה גם מרג'ע תקליד مرجع تقلید או בקיצור מרג'ע, מילולית: מקור לחיקוי או סמכות למסורת.
אל-אח'ירה, או: אל-אג'ילה الآخرة, الآجلة
הכינויים המוסלמיים לעולם הבא, העולם שאליו הולכות נשמות המתים.
אל-חַמְדֻ-לִלה (תחמיד) الحـَمـْدُ لله (التحمید)
(מילולית: השבח לאללה) - ביטוי המופיע בסורת אל-פאתיחה בקוראן (סורה 1, פסוק 2), ומשמש בחיי היומיום כביטוי לאמונה. השימוש בו דומה לשימוש בביטוי "ברוך השם" בפי יהודים דתיים, ואכן מוסלמים דוברי עברית אומרים לעתים קרובות "ברוך השם" במקום "אל-חמד ללה" כשהם מדברים עברית, וההפך אצל יהודים דוברי ערבית.
אללהֻ אכּבּר (תכּבּיר) الله أکبر (التکبیر)
(מילולית: אללה הוא הגדול מכול) - ביטוי הנאמר במהלך האד'אן (הקריאה לתפילה) ובמהלך התפילה המוסלמית. הוא נאמר גם כביטוי לאמונה, בפרט לפני ביצוע משימה קשה או מסוכנת. השימוש בו דומה במידה מסוימת לקריאה "שמע ישראל" בפי יהודים דתיים, אם כי הקריאה "אללה אכבר" בפי מוסלמים נפוצה יותר. לפעמים משלבים את התכביר עם התחמיד לנוסח הבא: الله أکبر ولله الحمد ("אללהֻ אכּבּר וַלִלהִ-לְחַמְד" - אללה הוא הגדול מכול ולאללה השבח). בציבור היהודי הישראלי הביטוי קיבל משמעות שלילית, כיוון שהוא נשמע לעתים מפי טרוריסטים מוסלמים לפני ביצוע פיגוע, מתוך כוונה לתת תוקף דתי לפעולתם. התכביר מופיע על דגל עיראק מאז שנת 1990.
אל-מווליד א-נבווי المولد النبویّ (מילולית: "יום הולדתו של הנביא")
יום הולדתו של מוחמד לפי כמה מסורות מוסלמיות. ציונו של היום החל במאה ה-11, והוא נתפס כ"בדעה חסנה" (חידוש דתי טוב, ראו הסבר להלן) ברוב הזרמים המוסלמים. בחלק מאסכולות ההלכה המוסלמיות (בפרט בווהאביה ובסלפיה) נחשב החג כ"בדעה סייאה", כלומר כחידוש בלתי-רצוי. רוב המוסלמים הסונים מציינים את היום כיום של שמחה ב-12 בחודש רביע אל-אוול. השיעים מציינים את היום ב-17 בחודש רביע אל-אוול יחד עם יום הולדתו של האימאם השישי ג'עפר א-צאדק.
אִמאם إمام (מילולית: העומד לפנים, המנהיג) -
בסונה: מנהיג התפילה במסגד, או ראש אסכולה הלכתית.
בשיעה התריסרית: אחד משנים-עשר אמאמים, החל מהתקופה לאחר מותו של מוחמד הנביא, שתפקדו כמנהיגי הקהילה.
האמאם הנסתר או האמאם הנעלם הוא האמאם השיעי השנים-עשר, שעל פי אמונת השיעים נעלם מעיני המאמינים במאה העשירית לספירה, והוא ישוב בקץ הזמנים ויושיע את העולם מאלימות ואי-צדק.
אמיר אל-מואמנין أمیر المؤمنین
מונח שפירושו "נשיא המאמינים" או "שליט המאמינים". היה תוארו של מוחמד, ושל הח'ליפים שהנהיגו אחריו. כיום תואר זה משמש באופן רשמי רק במרוקו ושם הוא אחד מתאריו של מלך מרוקו.
אנסאר, או: אנצאר الأنصار
תומכיו של מוחמד בעיר ית'רב (כיום: אל-מדינה). בשנת 622 לספירה, היגר מוחמד מעיר הולדתו מכה לעיר ית'רב שבה היו מרוכזים תומכיו. האנסאר סייעו למוחמד במלחמתו בבני שבט קורייש שליטי מכה, אולם משכבש מוחמד את העיר מכה והתפייס עם בני שבט קורייש, השבט שהוא עצמו יצא ממנו, הוא העדיף למנות אנשים מבני קורייש כאנשי אמונו, והאנסאר נדחקו מפניהם.
אל-אסראא ואל-מעראג' الإسراء والمعراج
הוא מסע עלייתו של הנביא מוחמד השמיימה. בהתאם למסורת של הסונים, נסע הנביא מוחמד באישון-לילה ממכה לירושלים בלווית המלאך גבריאל, רכוב על-גבי בהמה פלאית ששמה אל-בוראק. מהר הבית בירושלים עלה מוחמד לרקיע השביעי, פגש בנביאים כגון אברהם ומשה, וקיבל מאללה את מצוות התפילה. המסע נזכר בקוראן רק ברמז, בסורה 17 פסוק 1, אולם המסורת המוסלמית (החדית') מרחיבה ומפרטת את סיפור המעשה.
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בִדְעָה بـِدْعـَة
(ריבוי: בִדַע بـِدَع, מילולית: חידוש) היא חידוש דתי שאינו מבוסס על מסורות האסלאם, לדעת אנשי הדת. חכמי הדת המוסלמים מחלקים את מקרי הבִדְעָה לשני סוגים: "בדעה חסנה" (بدعة حسنة), כלומר "חידוש טוב", שהיא חידוש דתי שאמנם אינו מבוסס על מסורות האסלאם, אך גם אינו סותר את עקרונות האסלאם, ואף מיטיב עם דת האסלאם ומאמיניה. דוגמה לבדעה כזאת היא תפילת התראויח (التراویح) שנערכת בלילות חודש רמדאן. תפילה זו נחשבת כחידוש טוב ואף חיוני כיוון שהיא העניקה לסונים ייחוד דתי שמבדיל אותם מן השיעים. הסוג השני של מקרי בדעה הוא "בדעה סייאה" (بدعة سیـّئة), כלומר חידוש דתי בלתי-רצוי או מזיק, המוגדר לפעמים גם כחטא ומינות. דוגמה לבדעה מהסוג האחרון היא עריכת טקסים דתיים בירושלים הדומים לטקסים המיוחדים הנערכים במכה, ואשר מטשטשים לכאורה את ייחודה של מכה. יש מקרי בדעה שנויים במחלוקת. לדוגמה, החגיגות לכבוד יום הולדתו של הנביא מוחמד (אל-מולד א-נבווי) נחשבות בחלק מהזרמים המוסלמים כ"בדעה חסנה" ובחלק אחר כ"בדעה סייאה". בעת החדשה ניצלו ליברלים באסלאם את עקרון ה"בדעה חסנה" כדי להכניס למסגרת האסלאם את החידושים הטכנולוגים, וכן כדי להתאים את חוקי האסלאם למודרניזציה.
בַיְעָה بـَیـْعة
שבועת אמונים לשליט או הכרה בשלטונו בכתב או בעל פה. לעתים, כשההכרה בשלטון מתבצעת בכתב, התנאים עליהם מתחייב השליט לשמור רשומים בהסכם. לאורך ההיסטוריה המוסלמית אירעו מספר מרידות כשחלק מהנתינים סירבו להשבע לשליט חדש. לפי המסורת המוסלמית, הפעם הראשונה בהיסטוריה שהביעה נערכה הייתה לאחר מותו של הנביא מוחמד, כאשר עומר (לעתיד הח'ליף השני) הכיר ברעו אבו בכר כח'ליף הראשון, וזאת באמצעות תקיעת כף, שנקראה ה"ביעה". בחלק ממדינות ערב בימינו המונח "ביעה" מתייחס לטקס שבו ראשי הציבור נקראים להכיר בנשיא או במלך. טקסים כאלה נערכים מעת לעת ולפעמים הם מלווים במשאל-עם (אמיתי או מבוים).
בסְמִ-אללַהִ א-רחמן א-רחים ("בַסְמָלָה") بسم الله الرحمٰن الرحیم (البسملة)
(מילולית: "בשם אללה הרחמן והרחום") הפסוק הראשון בקוראן, אשר חוזר לפני כל סורה, למעט הסורה התשיעית. הוא נחשב כפסוק בפני עצמו רק בפתח הסורה הראשונה. בכל היתר הוא נחשב כהקדמה, אך לא כפסוק בסורה. על מוסלמי לומר את הבסמלה לפני כל ציטוט מהקוראן, גם אם הציטוט אינו כולל סורה שלמה. כמו כן מקובל לומר את הבסמלה בפתח כל נאום ולכתוב אותה כהקדמה להודעות ומכתבים.
בראאה - בַרַאאַה, מונח שיעי המציין את התנערותם מהמוסלמים אשר אינם מכירים בסמכותם של עלי וצאצאיו. מוסלמים אלו נחשבים טמאים ואינם נתפשים כמאמינים אמיתיים.
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ג'אהליה جاهلیة
תקופת הבערות לפני הופעת האסלאם, בה היו האנשים פוליתאיסטים. הכתבים האסלאמיים מתארים את הג'אהליה כתקופה חשוכה, בה לא ידעו בני האדם לעבוד את האל הנכון, אך עם זאת יש מסורות על דמויות מתקופת הג'אהליה שהיו להן תכונות נאצלות במיוחד, וכן יש הערכה רבה לשירה הערבית מתקופה זו.
ג'זיה או ג'יזיה جزْیة
מס גולגולת שהוטל על הזכרים בקרב בני החסות הלא-מוסלמים בעולם המוסלמי. הטלת המס מצווה בקוראן (29:9),כאשר נקבע שעל הלא מוסלמים לשלם את מס הגולגולת רק כאשר הם מנוצחים ונכנעים.כך שמשמעותה של המילה צאע'רון בקוראן הייתה ,מי שנכנע ומנוצח על ידי אדם אחר (סורה 7, פסוק 119).למרות זאת חלק ניכר מפרשני הקוראן בימי הביניים פירשו את הפסוק ,כי על המס להינתן בעוד בני החסות מושפלים.הפרשנות החדשה הייתה על רקע התנגדותם של זרמים שונים באסלאם על התגברות כוחם הכלכלי והחברתי של הלא מוסלמים בתוך המדינה המוסלמית .בראשית האסלאם ,הצטרכה המדינה המוסלמית למנות לא מוסלמים רבים למישרות כלכליות ופוליטיות בגלל שהמוסלמים היו מיעוט בקרב האולוסייה ובגלל שמרביתם של המוסלמים העדיפו לעסוק בצבא ובמסחר ולא היה להם הידע הדרוש במישרות מינהליות וכלכליות .עם התגברות כוחם הדמוגרפי של המוסלמים גבר גם רצונם לסלק את הלא מוסלמים מהמישרות המינהליות והכלכליות ולמנות מוסלמים במקומם ולשם כך התגייסו חכמי הדת איתם כאשר התחילו לפרש את תשלום מס הגולגולת על ידי נוצרים כתשלום שמעיד על מעמדם המושפל והנחות במדינה המוסלמית. בהתאם לתפיסה הזאת , מי שהשתייך למעמד נחות אינו רשאי להחזיק במישרה גבוהה . בעת החדשה , מנסים חכמי דת רפורמים לטעון ,שאין צורך לשלם את מס הגולגולת כיום במטרה למשוך יהודים ונוצרים לתוך האסלאם .לעומת זאת מנצלות התנועות הפונדמנטליסטיות , אי תשלום מס הגולגולת על ידי הנוצרים בסוריה ובמצרים כעדות על כך שהמדינות האלה מוגדרות כמדינות לא מוסלמיות .
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דאר אל-אסלאם دار الإسلام
(מילולית: בית האסלאם או תחום האסלאם) -
האזור הגאוגרפי בו האסלאם היא הדת השלטת.
דאר אל-חרב دار الحرب
(מילולית: בית המלחמה או תחום המלחמה) -
האזור הגאוגרפי הנמצא מחוץ לשליטת המוסלמים. בראיית האסלמיסטים באזור זה מצווים המוסלמים להרחיב את שליטת האסלאם באמצעות ג'יהאד.
דאר אל-אימאן دار الإیمان
(מילולית: בית האמונה או תחום האמונה) - מונח שיעי שפירושו: האזור הגאוגרפי שבו האסלאם השיעי הוא הדת השלטת, בשונה מ"דאר אל-אסלאם" שהוא האזור שבו שולטים מוסלמים סונים או שיעים.
דג'אל دجّال (מילולית: הרמאי, השקרן, המכזב)
משיח שקר מרושע (דומה לאנטיכריסט בנצרות), שיופיע בקץ הזמנים, יוליך את האנשים שולל ויסית אותם ממעשים טובים. על-פי מספר מסורות סוניות, ה"דג'אל" יהיה ממוצא יהודי, וצבא יהודים יילחם לצדו נגד המוסלמים המאמינים.
ד'יכרא או ד'יכרה ذِکرى
(מקביל למילה "זֵכר" בעברית) - מועד המצוין פעם בשנה. כינוי למועדים שונים בלוח השנה המוסלמי שאינם נחשבים חגים של ממש. למשל: "יום המסע והעלייה לשמים" (ذکرى الإسراء والمعراج, ד'כרא אלאסראא ואלמעראג', ב-27 לחודש רג'ב).
דִ'מי או ד'ימי ذمی‎
אחד מבני אהל א-דִ'מה أهل الذمة
בני החסות תחת שלטון מוסלמי - מאמיני הדתות המונותאיסטיות הלגיטימיות בעיני המוסלמים - ביניהם יהודים, נוצרים וזורואסטרים. לאנשים אלו ישנה זכות לדבוק באמונתם, אולם מעמדם החוקי היה נמוך משל המוסלמים, והם הוכרחו להעלות מס גולגולת (ראו ג'זיה).
דָעוה או דעווה دعوة
(מילולית: קריאה, הזמנה) באופן מסורתי, הדעוה התייחסה להפצת האסלאם ללא-מוסלמים ברחבי העולם ("הזמנתם" לדת), באמצעים לא אלימים. כיום קיימת גם פעילות דעוה של מפלגות אסלמיסטיות כדי לקרב מוסלמים "חילוניים" לדת.
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הֻדְנָה או הוּדנה هدنة
הפסקת אש, הפוגה או הפסקה (זמנית) של לחימה, על-פי הסכם. (ראה: הסכם חדיביה)
ההיג'רה الهجرة
הגירתו של מוחמד מעיר הולדתו מכה לעיר ית'רב (היא אל-מדינה) בקיץ של שנת 622 לספירה. מוחמד החליט לעזוב את עיר הולדתו עם כמה מתומכיו הקרובים משרבו האיומים על חייו. בעיר ית'רב, שנמצאת 320 ק"מ מצפון למכה, היו למוחמד תומכים רבים. אירוע זה נחשב באסלאם כתחילתה של ההיסטוריה המוסלמית, ולפיכך השנים בלוח המוסלמי נמנות מהשנה שבה אירעה ההיג'רה.
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זיארה زِیَارَة
עליה לרגל שמבצעים המוסלמים לאתרים שאינם הכעבה במכה (שעלייה לרגל אליה מכונה חאג' או עוּמְרה). אתרי זיארה קשורים לחייו של הנביא מוחמד, מלוויו, צאצאיו ודמויות חשובות אחרות בהיסטוריה האסלאמית, כדוגמת האימאמים השיעים, והקדושים הסופים. האתרים השונים כוללים מסגדים, קברים, ומקומות בהם התרחשו קרבות מפורסמים. הזיארה נפוצה במיוחד בקרב השיעים, ועל ידי סונים רבים נחשבת ככפירה ו"סגידה לקברים".
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חג' حجّ
עלייה לרגל לאתרים הקדושים לאסלאם במכה ובסביבותיה. העלייה לרגל היא אחת מחמש המצוות העיקריות באסלאם. היא מתקיימת בחודש "ד'ו אל-חיג'ה" (ذو الحـِجـّة, החודש האחרון בלוח השנה המוסלמי), ולפי השריעה כל מוסלמי בוגר חייב לקיימה לפחות פעם אחת בימי חייו, ובלבד שהוא מסוגל לכך מבחינה בריאותית וכלכלית, ושהדרכים למכה אינן חסומות.
חאג' حاجّ (לאישה: חאג'ה حاجـّة בריבוי: חוג'אג' حـُجاج) - תוארו של מוסלמי שקיים את מצוות העלייה לרגל במלואה. נחשב כתואר כבוד בקהילות מוסלמיות.
חדית' حدیث
אוסף של סיפורים, מסורות והלכות המתארים את חייו של מוחמד ואנשים הקרובים אליו. יחד עם הקוראן והסירה (ביוגרפיות על חייו של מוחמד), החדית' מהווים את הבסיס לפסיקה המשפטית האסלאמית.
חֻ'טְבַה או חוּטבה خطبة
מילולית: דרשה, היא הדרשה הנשאת טרם תפילת יום השישי במסגדים, או לאחר התפילה בימי הע'יד.
חַ'ליף או ח'ליפה خلیفة
(מילולית: מחליף) המנהיגים שהחליפו את הנביא מוחמד בשליטתו על הקהילה המוסלמית.
חניף حنیف
מונח שמקורו בקוראן שנועד לתאר אדם מונותאיסטי או אדם שהאמין בדת אברהם בתקופת הקדם-אסלאם. חניף הוא גם כינוי למוסלמי אדוק ואדם תמים דרך וישר.
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כאפִר کافر
אדם כופר, כפוי טובה . קיימת מחלוקת בקרב חכמי דת מוסלמים אם יהודים ונוצרים נופלים תחת קטגוריה זו, שכן הם נחשבים ל"אנשי הספר" (ראה: אהל אל-כיתאב) ונהנים מזכויות משפטיות מסוימות תחת שלטון מוסלמי (ראו ד'ימי).
כֻּתאב کـُتـّاب
בית ספר לילדים רכים (דומה לחדר במסורת היהודית) שבו לומדים הילדים קריאה, כתיבה ולימודי דת בסיסיים.
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מִחְראב או מיחראב محراب
גומחה בקיר מסגד המצביעה על הקִיבלה - הכיוון אל הכעבה, אליו צריכים לפנות מוסלמים בעת התפילה.
מִנְבָר או מינבר منبر
דוכן במסגד שעליו עומד האימאם כדי לשאת דרשות. המינבר מעוצב בדרך כלל כמגדל קטן בעל גג מחודד ומדרגה המובילה אליו.
מֻהַאגִ'רוּן או מוהאג'ירון مهاجرون
מילולית - מהגרים; אלו הם המוסלמים הראשונים שהלכו אחרי מוחמד והיגרו בהג'רה ממכה לאל-מדינה. המוסלמים המוקדמים מאל-מדינה נקראים אנסאר ("עוזרים").
מדרסה مدرسة
בית ספר. בקהילות מוסלמיות רבות, בפרט כאלה שאינן דוברות ערבית, המונח מתייחס למוסד חינוכי דתי-מוסלמי לילדים, שבני כל הגילאים לומדים בו יחד (ראו גם: כותאב).
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עבד عبد
קידומת נפוצה לשמות מוסלמיים. היא מופיעה בדרך-כלל לפני אחד מ-99 כינוייו של אללה במסורת המוסלמית, וכך יוצרת שם פרטי שמשמעותו "עבד האל". דוגמאות: عبد الله (עבד אללה - עבד לאללה), عبد الجبار (עבד אל-ג'באר - עבד לבעל הגבורה), عبد السلام (עבד א-סלאם - עבד לעושה השלום) ועוד.
עומרה عـُمرة
עלייה לרגל למכה שלא במועד החג'. עלייה לרגל כזו כוללת רק מקצת מהטקסים שנהוגים בחג', והיא אינה נחשבת כקיום מצוות החג'. עם זאת, יש לעומרה מעמד כמצווה בפני עצמה (גם אם במעמד פחות ממעמד מצוות החג'). יש הלכות מוסלמיות המאפשרות למוסלמי לקיים את העומרה תוך כדי החג' כדי שלא ייאלץ לעמוד במסע הארוך למכה פעמיים.
עיד عید
(מילולית: חג, חגיגה, בעברית נכתב לפעמים גם: אִיד, אולם אין קשר למילה אֵיד מלשון חז"ל) - כינוי לשני החגים המוסלמיים העיקריים: עיד אל-פטר ("חג שבירת הצום" עם תום חודש רמדאן) ועיד אל-אדחה ("חג הקורבן", שחל בזמן העלייה לרגל למכה).
עאלם عالم (בריבוי: עלמא, עלמאא, עולמא علماء)
איש דת מוסלמי בעל סמכות לפסוק בענייני השריעה - ההלכה המוסלמית. בימי הח'ליפות היו העלמאא אחראים על פירוש ההלכה המוסלמית וקיומה, בעוד הח'ליף היה אחראי רק על ההיבטים החילוניים של השלטון. בימינו המילה עאלם בערבית היא רב-משמעית, ופירושה גם: מדען.
עִצְמָה או עיצמה عِصْمَة
(מילולית: מחסה, טוהר) הוא מונח המתאר את חסינותם של אנשים מביצוע טעויות וחטאים. המוסלמים מאמינים כי הנביא מוחמד ונביאים שקדמו לו וילדים קטנים הם חסינים מחטא. השיעים מאמינים כי 12 האימאמים השיעים, הנביא מוחמד ובתו פאטמה הינם מעצומין (معصومین).
עשורא عاشوراء(כתיבים חלופיים בעברית: עשורה, עשוראא) - היום העשירי בחודש מוחרם, הוא החודש הראשון בלוח השנה המוסלמי.
בסונה - יום מומלץ לצום. אין חובה לצום ביום זה, אולם יש הצמים כפיצוי על הכרח לבטל חלק מצום רמדאן, או כביטוי לאדיקות דתית. הצום נמשך מעלות השחר עד רדת החשכה. לפי מסורות מסוימות, יש לצום גם ביום התשיעי לחודש מוחרם, ויש הגורסים כי יש לצום שלושה ימים, בין 9 ל-11 בחודש מוחרם.
בשיעה - יום אבל על הירצחו של חוסיין בן עלי בעיר כרבלא בשנת 680 לספירה. חוסיין בן עלי נחשב בשיעה לאימאם השלישי, וליורשו של מוחמד.
מסורות הקשורות ביום זה - המוסלמים מאמינים כי ביום זה קרו מספר אירועים מרכזיים: תיבת נוח נחה על קרקע יבשה, נולד אברהם, התחולל נס קריעת ים סוף ונבנתה הכעבה בעיר מכה. יש מסורות מוסלמיות המספרות כי מוחמד אימץ את המנהג לצום בעשורא מן היהודים שחיו בעיר אל-מדינה, ולפיכך סבורים חוקרי אסלאם אחדים כי חלק מהמסורות שנקשרו בעשורא היו במקורן מסורות יהודיות לגבי אירועים שקרו ביום הכיפורים.
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פִתְנָה או פיתנה (פ' לא דגושה) فتنة
מונח בעל משמעויות רבות בערבית, אולם השימוש העיקרי שלו כיום - במשמעות מחלוקת או מלחמת אזרחים פנים-אסלאמית.
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שירכ شرک (תעתיק מדויק: שִרְכ, מילולית: "שיתוף") -
חטא הפוליתאיזם, חטא האמונה ביותר מאל אחד, או "שיתוף" אלים אחרים באמונה ובפולחן הדתי. היפוכו של המונח תווחיד (ראו להלן). לעתים קרובות מתאר המונח אורח חיים מגונה או פולחן דתי בלתי-ראוי, גם כשאינם קשורים בעבודת אלילים.
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תברא (תַּבַרַּא) מונח אסלאמי המתאר את אקט הח'ליפים הסוניים הראשונים - אבו בכר, עמר ועת'מאן, בידי השיעים בתפילות. בשיעה ז'רגון גנאי מיוחד לח'ליפים אלו: אבו בכר מכונה ה"עגל" בשל חולשתו, עמר מכונה "א-סאמרי" (השומרוני) וע'תמאן ה"כלב" משום שלדידם השחית את הקוראן והשמיט ממנו את הקטעים המדברים בזכותם לשלטון. לטענתם, גזלו הללו את הח'ליפות מעלי וביתו כפי שהובטחה להם בידי האל והנביא.
תווחיד (תַוְחיד) توحید (מילולית "ייחוד", שורש ו.ח.ד - א.ח.ד בעברית)
מונח אסלאמי המתאר מונותאיזם - אמונה באל יחיד. ראו ההפך - שירכ.
תאסועאא تاسوعاء - כינוי ליום התשיעי בחודש מוחרם, החודש הראשון בלוח השנה המוסלמי. לפי כמה מסורות סוניות יום זה כלול בצום עשוראא.
תמסח (תַמַסֻּח) מונח דתי בשיעה האסמאעיליה המתאר את גישתה הקנאית הדוחה את המוסלמים האחרים אשר אינם מקבלים את עקרונותיה ככופרים.
קטגוריות: ויקיפדיה: ערכים הדורשים השלמהאסלאםמונחוניםמילים וביטויים ערביים

قس روسی

Эта статья содержит список терминов, связанных с исламом и специфичных слов, применяемых в исламской литературе и в повседневной жизни мусульман. Для удобства, каждый термин имеет ссылку на соответствующую статью в Википедии.
Большая часть терминов не имеет русскоязычных аналогов и публикуются на основе арабского, тюркского или персидского варианта в том виде и с тем смыслом, в котором они употребляются чаще всего среди русскоязычных мусульман.

Содержание: А Б В Г Д З И К Л М Н О П Р С Т У Ф Х Ч Ш Э Я Сокращения Словарь Ссылки
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Аврат, Аурат (араб. عورة‎‎ — слабое незащищенное место, половые органы ) — часть тела, которую мусульмане обязаны прикрывать перед другими людьми. Для женщин авратом считается всё тело, кроме овала лица и кистей рук, для мужчин — от пупка до колен включительно.
Азаб аль-кабр (араб. عذاب القبر) — испытание и наказание, которым подвергается человек после смерти до наступления Судного дня.
Акыда, Акида (араб. عقیدة‎‎ — вера, догма) — комплекс вероубеждений мусульман раскрывающий суть Имана.
Алим (араб. عالم‎‎ — ученый, знающий) Улемы (араб. علماء‎‎ — ученые) — ученый, богослов.
Аятолла (араб. آیة الله‎‎ — знамение Аллаха) — шиитский религиозный титул, дающий право выносить самостоятельные решения по правовым вопросам.
Факих (араб. فقیه‎‎ — юрист) — учёный в области мусульманского права.
Муфассир (араб. مُفس‎‎ — толкователь) — толкователь (комментатор) Корана, автор тафсира.
Муфтий (араб. مفتى‎‎ — высказывающий мнение) — учёный — знаток шариата, дающий разъяснение его основных положений и принимающий решения по спорным вопросам в форме особого заключения, основываясь на принципах шариата и прецедентах.
Мухаддис (араб. محدث‎‎ —) — учёный, глубоко изучивший науку о хадисах.
Муджаддид (араб. مجدد‎‎ — обновитель) — обновитель веры. Согласно хадису пророка Мухаммеда каждые сто лет среди мусульман будут появляться люди, которые будут обновлять ислам. К муджаддидам были причислены: Умар ибн Абдулазиз, Имам аш-Шафи’и, Имам аль-Ашари, Имам аль-Газали, Имам ар-Рази, Ибн Дакик Ид, Имам ас-Суюти и другие.
Муджтахид (араб. المجته‎‎ — усердствующий) — учёный, достигший уровня иджтихада.
Хафиз (араб. حفیظ‎‎ — хранитель) — знающий наизусть весь Коран. Учёный-мухаддис, знающий наизусть более 100 000 хадисов.
Ахль аль-Бейт (араб. أهل البیت‎‎ — люди дома) — члены семьи и жёны пророка Мухаммеда, а также самоназвание шиитов.
Матери правоверных (араб. أمهات المؤمنین‎‎) — звание, которого удостаивались все жены пророка Мухаммеда.
Алиды — потомки Али ибн Абу Талиба и дочери пророка Мухаммеда Фатимы.
Шерифы (араб. شریفة‎‎) — потомки пророка Мухаммада от его внука Хасана.
Сеиды (араб. سادة‎‎) — потомки пророка Мухаммада от его внука Хусейна.
Ахлю сунна валь джамаат (араб. أهل السنة والجماعة‎‎ — люди Сунны и общины) — самоназвание суннитов.
Ахират (араб. الآخره‎‎ — конец, последний) — вечная, загробная жизнь состоящая из жизни в раю либо в аду. Противоположным Ахирату является Дунья (араб. دنیا‎‎).
Джаннат (араб. جنّة‎‎ — сад) — рай, райские сады, в которых будут пребывать праведники и верующие.
Джаханнам (араб. جهنم‎‎ — Геенна) — ад, вечное местопребывание грешников и неверующих после смерти.
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Категории людей в исламе


Мусульмане
Муслим (мусульманин)
Вали (святой)
Мувахид (монотеист)
Мумин (правоверный)
Мухсин
Салих (праведник)
Неверующие
Джахиль (невежда)
Зимми
Зиндик (еретик)
Кафир (неверующий)
Люди Писания
Мунафик (лицемер)
Муртад (отступник)
Мушаббихит
Мульхид (атеист)
Мушрик (многобожник)
Прочее
Люди Фитры
Мутасиб (фанатик)
Умма (нация)
Ханиф
Фасик (нечестивец)
Фаджир (грешник)
Барака (араб. برکة‎‎ — благословение) — Божественное благословение, которым могут быть наделены пророки и их близкие.
Барзах (араб. برزخ‎‎ — преграда) — место пребывания человеческой души в период между физической смертью и днём воскрешения из мёртвых.
Басмала (араб. بسملة‎‎), Тасмия — фраза означающая «С именем Аллаха, милостивого, милосердного», с которой начинается все суры Корана, кроме девятой.
Бейт аль-Мамур (араб. البیت المعمور‎‎ — дом Мамур) — храм, небесный аналог Каабы, расположенная на седьмом небе прямо над Каабой.
Бида (араб. بدعة‎‎ — новшество) — нововведение, которые были введены в исламскую религию после периода жизни пророка Мухаммада ﷺ и его сподвижников.
Бурак (араб. البراق‎‎ — сияющий, молниеносный) — животное из потустороннего мира, на котором пророк Мухаммед совершил ночное путешествие (исра) из Мекки в Иерусалим.
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Вали (араб. ولی‎‎ — покровитель, святой), Авлия (араб. أولیاء‎‎) — праведник, приближенный к Аллаху, усердствующий в молитвах, поминании Аллаха и других видах поклонения. У суфиев — святой, который может обладать сверхъестественными способностями (караматами).
Васвас (араб. الوسوسة‎‎ — сомнение) — наущения шайтана, подталкивающие человека к совершению греха, либо к отвлечению от поклонения.
Вахй (араб. وحی‎‎ — откровение) — божественное откровение. Скрытый и быстрый способ передачи сообщений пророкам напрямую, или через ангелов.

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Даават (араб. دعوة‎‎ — призыв) — призыв, приглашение в Ислам, прозелитизм.
Даджаль (араб. الدجال‎‎ — недостаток, порок), Масих ад-Даджаль (араб. المسیخ الدجال‎‎) — Антихрист.
Джанаба (араб. جنابة‎‎ — осквернение) — состояние полового осквернения, которое наступает после половой близости или поллюции во сне.
Джаназа (араб. جنازة‎‎ — похороны) — похороны в исламе.
Ляхад (араб. لحد‎‎) — вид могилы, при котором со стороны Киблы делается ниша для помещения в неё тела.
Шик (араб. شِق‎‎ — трещина, расселина) — вид могилы (при чересчур мягкой почве) при котором на дне по центру выкапывается неглубокая траншея для того, чтобы поместить в неё тело.
Джахилия (араб. جاهلیة‎‎ — невежество) — доисламские времена, времена язычества.
Джабраил, Джибриль (араб. جبریل‎‎ — могущество Бога) — ангел, отвечающий за сообщение откровения Аллаха пророкам. Соответствует библейскому Архангелу Гавриилу.
Джизья (араб. جزْیة‎‎ — дань) — подушный налог, взимаемый со взрослых мужчин немусульман, живущих на территории мусульманского государства в обмен на освобождение от службы в армии.
Джинн (араб. جنّ‎‎ — джинн) — творения, созданные из огня и обладающие свободной волей. Джинны могут быть как мусульманами, так и неверующими (шайтаны, бесы).
Джихад (араб. الجهاد‎‎ — усердие, усилие) — усердие в благих делах, приложение усилий в благих делах, борьба за веру.
Газават, Газа (араб. غزوات‎‎ — вторжение) — войны, в которых лично участвовал пророк Мухаммед.
Сария (араб. سریة‎‎) — военные походы, в которых пророк Мухаммад не принимал личного участия.
Шахид (араб. شَهید‎‎ — мученик) — мусульманин павший за веру, мученик.
Муджахид, Моджахед (араб. مجاهد‎‎ — борец, совершающий усилие), Гази (араб. غازی‎‎) — участник джихада, а также любой мусульманин, чья борьба укладывается в причинные рамки одного из определений джихада.
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Мечеть Аль-Акса
Закят (араб. زکاة‎‎ — то, что очищает) — обязательная милостыня, налог, взимаемый раз в году с мусульман, владеющих определённым имуществом. Один из пяти столпов ислама.
Нисаб (араб. نِصاب‎‎ — кворум) — сумма, при наличии которой человек обязан выплачивать Закят.
Сах (араб. صاعُ‎‎) — мера веса, в количестве которого каждый мусульманин выплачивает закят продуктами питания.
Садака (араб. صدقة‎‎ — милостыня) — добровольная милостыня.
Зикр (араб. ذکر‎‎ — поминание), Азкары — духовная практика, заключающаяся в многократном произнесении молитвенных формул, содержащей имя Аллаха.
Истигфар (араб. إستغفار‎‎), Астагфируллах (араб. أستغفر الله‎‎) — слова поминания Аллаха, означающие «прости Аллах»
Истиаза (араб. استعاذة‎‎), Аузубиллах (араб. أعوذ بالله‎‎) — слова поминания Аллаха, означающие «прибегаю (за помощью) к Аллаху»
Такбир (араб. تکبیر‎‎), Аллаху Акбар (араб. ﷲ اکبر‎‎) — слова поминания Аллаха, означающие «Аллах величайший»
Тасбих (араб. تسبیح‎‎), Субханаллах (араб. سبحان الله‎‎) — слова поминания Аллаха, означающие «Свят Аллах».
Тахлиль (араб. تهلیل‎‎), Ля иляха илля ллах (араб. لا إله إلا الله‎‎) — слова поминания Аллаха, означающие «нет Бога кроме Аллаха».
Тахмид (араб. تحمید‎‎), Альхамдулиллах (араб. الحمد لله‎‎) — слова поминания Аллаха, означающие «хвала Аллаху».
Зиярат (араб. زِیارة‎‎ — визит, паломничество) — святое место, место паломничества мусульман.
Запретная мечеть (араб. المسجد الحرام‎‎), Аль-Харам (араб. الحرام‎‎) — мечеть в Мекке, на территории которой находится Кааба, первая святыня ислама.
Мечеть Пророка (араб. المسجد النبوی‎‎) — первая построенная мусульманами мечеть и вторая святыня ислама. На территории мечети находится могила пророка Мухаммеда.
Мечеть аль-Акса (араб. المسجد الاقصى‎‎ — Отдалённая мечеть) — мечеть на Храмовой горе в Иерусалиме, третья святыня Ислама.
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Шаблон: Просмотр • Обсуждение • Править
Ибадат (араб. عبادة‎‎ — служение) — поклонение, под которым понимаются все явные и скрытые слова и деяния, которые угодны всевышнему Аллаху. К поклонению относятся намаз, пост, жертвоприношение, мольба, обет и т. п. В более широком смысле поклонением считается любое благодеяние, которое совершается ради Аллаха.
Иджма (араб. إجماع‎‎ — согласие) — единогласное мнение большинства исламских ученых-правоведов.
Иджтихад (араб. اجتهاد‎‎ — усилие над собой) — достижение высшей ступени знаний и получение права самостоятельно решать некоторые вопросы теологическо-правового характера.
Икамат (араб. إقامة‎‎ — ) — второй азан, читаемый перед обязательной молитвой. Немного отличается от азана.
Имам (араб. إمام‎‎ — предводитель) — руководитель коллективной молитвы; Почётный титул крупнейших религиозных авторитетов, основателей мазхабов и т. д.; Глава мусульманской общины.
Хатиб, Хатыб (араб. خطیب‎‎ — проповедник) — имам, читающий пятничную проповедь (хутба — خطبة).
Иман (араб. إیمان‎‎ — вера) — убеждение включающее в себя веру в Аллаха, Ангелов, Священные Писания, пророков, в Судный день и Предопределение.
Инсан камиль (араб. إنسان کامل‎‎ — совершенный человек) — в суфизме идеал совершенного человека, победившего в себе нафс и достигшего состояния хакика.
Ирфан (араб. عرفان) — особый вид сакрального знания о том, каким должен быть истинный мусульманин-монотеист, и о том, как достичь близости к Аллаху.
Истихсан (араб. استحسان‎‎ —) — вынесение религиозного постановления, опираясь на внутренний голос. Подобную практику допускали Абу Ханифа и его последователи, хотя абсолютное большинство мусульманских богословов отвергали её.
Итикаф (араб. اعتکاف‎‎ —) — уединение в мечети ради поклонения всевышнему Аллаху, в течение которого мусульманин не имеет права без уважительной причины покидать мечеть и совершать половое сношение с женой.
Ихрам (араб. إحرام‎‎ — посвящение) — особое состояние духовной чистоты паломника, совершающего хадж. Для пребывания в нём требуется совершить полное омовение тела, облачиться в особые одеяния и соблюдаются правила ихрам.
Ихсан (араб. احسان‎‎ — хороший), Ихляс (араб. الإخلاص‎‎ — искренность) — высокая степень веры, позволяющая человеку совершать дела искренне ради Аллаха так, как будто он видит Его. Ибо даже если он не видит Его, он знает, что Аллах видит его.
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Ислам · Мечеть · Хадж

Составные части:
1.Чёрный камень 2.Дверь 3.Жёлоб 4.Цоколь 5.Хиджр Исмаил 6.Мультазам 7.Макам Ибрахима 8.Угол Чёрного камня 9.Угол Йемена 10.Угол Шама 11.Угол Ирака 12.Кисва 13.Мраморная полоса 14.Место стояния Ибрахима
См. также
Масджид аль-Харам • Кибла Таваф • Бани Шайба • Умра
Портал: Ислам


Государства Магриба


Минбар и Михраб мечети


Предположительная расколотая поверхность луны
Кааба (араб. الکعبة‎‎ — куб) — мусульманская святыня в виде кубической постройки во внутреннем дворе Заповедной Мечети в Мекке. В сторону Каабы мусульмане обращают свое лицо во время молитвы, а во время хаджа вокруг Каабы совершается обряд таваф.
Чёрный камень (араб. الحجر الأسود‎‎) — чёрный камень, который находится на одной из стен Каабы на высоте полутора метров от земли.
Макам Ибрахима (араб. مقام إبراهیم‎‎) — место в пределах мекканского комплекса Масджид аль-Харам, на котором стоял пророк Ибрахим (Авраам), когда он, вместе со своим сыном Исмаилом строил Каабу.
Калам (араб. کلام‎‎ — слово, речь) — философско-теологическая дисциплина.
Кафара (араб. کََفَّارَة‎‎ — искупление) — искупление за совершение греха.
Кибла, Кыбла (араб. قبلة‎‎ — направление) — направление на Каабу в Мекке. Сторона, в которую мусульмане совершают свою молитву.
Куния, Кунья (араб. کنیة‎‎ — прозвище) — составная часть арабского (мусульманского) имени, включающее элементы «абу» (أب — отец) или «умм» (أم — мать).
Курайшиты (араб. قریش‎‎ — Курайш) — родное племя пророка Мухаммеда, которое долгое время вело с ним борьбу.
Курбан (араб. قربان‎‎ — жертвоприношение) — жертвоприношение, жертва.
Удхия (араб. التضحیة‎‎ — жертва) — жертвоприношение, приносимое мусульманами в дни жертвоприношения.
Хадья (араб. الْهَدْیُ‎‎ — жертва) — жертвоприношение, приносимое паломниками в дни жертвоприношения.
Назр Курбан (араб. نذر قربان‎‎ — обетованная жертва) — жертвоприношение, которое человек добровольно делает для себя обязательным.
Акика (араб. عقیقة‎‎ — перерезание) — жертвоприношение одного или двух баранов, совершаемое при рождении ребенка.
Атира (араб. عتیرة‎‎ — ) — жертвоприношение, которое совершали арабы-многобожники в доисламские времена в последние десять дней месяца Раджаб. Это было дозволено в первые годы ислама, но затем отменено.
Курбан-байрам (тур. Kurban Bayramı), Ид аль-Адха (араб. عید الأضحى‎‎) — праздник жертвоприношения и окончания хаджа, отмечаемый в 10 день месяца Зуль-хиджа в память жертвоприношения пророка Авраама.
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Лайлат аль-Кадр (араб. لیلة القدر‎‎ — ночь предопределения) — одна из ночей месяца Рамадан.
Лаух аль-Махфуз, Хранимая Скрижаль (араб. لوح محفوظ‎‎ — скрижаль хранимая) — скрижаль, на которой записаны все прошедшие и будущие события в мире.
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Мазхаб (араб. مذهب‎‎ — доктрина, школа) — религиозно-правовые школы в области мусульманского права.
Мансух (араб. منسُوخِه‎‎ —) — аннулированные коранические аяты или религиозные предписания.
Махди, Махди Сахиб аз-Заман (араб. مهدی‎‎ — ведомый) — провозвестник близкого конца света, последний преемник пророка Мухаммада, своего рода мессия. В Коране Махди не упоминается, однако идея мессии широко толкуется в хадисах.
Махрам ((араб. محرم) — запрещённый) — близкий родственник, за которого женщина не имеет права выходить замуж по причине их родства, но имеет право оставаться с ним наедине и отправляться в путешествие.
Мечеть (араб. المسجد‎‎ — место падения ниц, место поклонения) — архитектурное сооружение, предназначенное для молитв и включающее в себя такие элементы как минарет, минбар, михраб и т. д..
Джума мечеть (араб. مسجد الجمعة‎‎ — пятничная мечеть) — мечеть для совершения пятничной молитвы.
Мисвак, Сивак (араб. سواک‎‎ — сивак) — щетка для чистки зубов, сделанная из веток и корней дерева арак (Salvadora persica), при разжёвывании которых волокна разделяются и превращаются в кисточку.
Муджизат (араб. معجزات‎‎ — недосягаемый), Иджаз (араб. إعجاز‎‎) — чудо, выходящее за пределы человеческих возможностей и служащее доказательством истинности пророческой миссии.
Исра и Мирадж (араб. إسراء ومعراج‎‎ — путешествие ночью и вознесение) — событие произошедшее с пророком Мухаммедом, во время которого он был перенесён из Мекки в Иерусалим, а затем вознесён на небеса.
Иншикак аль-Камар (араб. نشقاق القمر‎‎ — раскалывание луны) — раскалывание луны, одно из чудес пророка Мухаммада.
Манн и Сальва (араб. المن و السلوى‎‎ — манна и перепела) — манна и перепела, которые Аллах ниспослал сынам Израиля после мольбы пророка Моисея.
Мусхаф (араб. مصحف‎‎ —) — сборник написанных и собранных в одном месте листов в виде книги, будь то Коран или другая книга.
Мутавиль (араб. ‎‎) — сторонник ошибочных взглядов, который несправедливо обвиняет в неверии некоторых мусульман.
Муташабихат (араб. متشابهات‎‎ —) — неясные, трудно понимаемые аяты Корана, которые притягивают особое внимание комментаторов.
Мухкам (араб. محکم‎‎ —) — коранические аяты, содержащие ясные и неаннулированные религиозные предписания.
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Наби (араб. نبی‎‎ — пророк) — пророк.
Расуль (араб. رسول‎‎ — посланник) — пророк, который принес новую книгу и закон (шариат).
Улю-ль-азм (араб. أولو العزم‎‎ — твердость, стойкость, решимость) — определение, данное пророкам из-за их бесстрашия перед выполнением данных им обязанностей и ответственности в деле донесения до людей религии, противостоя всем трудностям и лишениям. Носителями звания Уль уль-Азм являются следующие пророки: Адам, Нух, Ибрахим, Муса, Иса и Мухаммад.
Печать пророчества (араб. خاتم الأنبیاء‎‎ — хатам аль-анбия) — последний пророк человечества. Это самая высокая степень пророков и она принадлежит только пророку Мухаммаду.
Наджаса (араб. نجاس‎‎), Наджис (араб. النجاسة‎‎ — нечистота) — нечистоты, к которым относятся моча, кал, рвота мертвечина, свинина и т. д.
Мустакзар (араб. مستقذر‎‎) — чистые отвратительные вещества, например, слюна.
Намаз (перс. نماز‎), Салят (араб. صلاة‎‎) — ритуальная молитва.
Насих (араб. ناسخ‎‎ — удаление, изменение) — отмена положений одних аятов Корана или хадисов, в пользу положений других аятов или хадисов.
Нафиля (араб. نافلة‎‎ —) — необязательные обряды для поклонения Аллаху, которые желательно совершать, даже если имеются несовершенные обязательные намазы.
Нафс (араб. النفس‎‎ — душа) — животные страсти, сущность человека, его «Я».
Никях (араб. نکاح‎‎ — брак) , Махар — бракосочетание.
Махр (араб. الْمَهْرُ‎‎ — приданое) — приданое.
Мута (араб. نکاح المتعة‎‎ — брак для удовольствия) — временный брак, который был распространен среди арабов до появления ислама и разрешен в первые годы ислама, но впоследствии запрещен. На сегодняшний день разрешён у шиитов.
Талак (араб. الطلاق‎‎ — развод) — развод.
Идда (араб. عدة‎‎ — несколько) — период (4 месяца и 10 дней) выжидания после развода или кончины мужа, в течение которого женщина не имеет права выйти замуж за другого мужчину.
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Праведные халифы (араб. الخلفاء الراشدون‎‎) — четыре первых халифа (Абу Бакр, Умар ибн аль-Хаттаб, Усман ибн Аффан, Али ибн Абу Талиб).
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Рукн, Арканы (араб. أَرْکَان‎‎) — обязательная составная часть совершаемого поклонения.
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Арабское написание имени пророка Мухаммеда с добавлением салавата
Салават, Салауат (араб. صلوات‎‎ — ) — фраза Салла-ллаху аляйхи ва салам, которую мусульмане произносят после упоминания имени пророка Мухаммада.
Салафы (араб. سلف‎‎ — предшественник) — праведные предшественники жившие в первые 300 лет после Хиджры. Поколения жившие с третьего века по наши дни называются халафами (араб. ‎‎ — последующие)
Сахаба (араб. صحابی‎‎ — друг), Асхабы (араб. الصحابة‎‎) — сподвижники пророка Мухаммеда, видевшие его.
Мухаджиры (араб. المهاجرون‎‎ — переселенцы) — переселенцы в Медины из Мекку под предводительством пророка Мухаммеда. Переселенцы, беженцы в странах ислама, люди совершающие хиджру.
Ансары (араб. أنصاری‎‎ — помощники (пророка)) — коренные жители Медины, которые обратились в ислам и стали сподвижниками пророка Мухаммеда. Вместе с мухаджирами составляли мусульманскую общину Медины.
Табиин (араб. تابعین‎‎ — последователь), Табиун (араб. تابعون‎‎) — мусульманин, живший во времена пророка Мухаммеда, но не видевший его лично, либо тот, кто видел и общался со сподвижниками пророка Мухаммеда.
Таба-табиины (араб. تابع التابعین‎‎ — после табиинов) — ученики табиинов, которые никогда не видели сподвижников пророка Мухаммеда.
Соблюдающий мусульманин (араб. مسلم ملتزم‎‎ — практикующий мусульманин) — мусульманин, выполняющий все столпы ислама (намаз, пост и т. д.) и практикующий исламские религиозные обряды.
Столпы Имана (араб. أرکان الإیمان‎‎) — основные части вероубеждения, включающие в себя веру в Аллаха, ангелов, пророков, Священные Писания, Судный день и предопределённость судьбы.
Суджуд (араб. السُّجُود‎‎ — земной поклон) — земной поклон в намазе.
Суджуд сахв (араб. سجود السهو‎‎) — земной поклон, совершаемый при упущении или оплошности во время намаза.
Суджуд тилява (араб. سجود التلاوة‎‎) — земной поклон, совершаемый после прочтения одного из аятов, в котором упоминается земной поклон.
Суджуд шукр (араб. سجود الشکر‎‎) — земной поклон, совершаемый в знак благодарности Аллаху.
Сунна (араб. سنة‎‎ — путь, дорога) — священное предание, содержащее хадисы пророка Мухаммеда. Желательное действие.
Сихах-Сита (араб. الصحاح الستة‎‎ — шесть Сахихов) — шесть достоверных сборники хадисов, составленные аль-Бухари, Муслимом, Абу Давудом, ан-Насаи, ат-Тирмизи и имамом Ибн Маджа.
Муснад (араб. مسند‎‎ — относить что-либо к че­му-либо) — сборник хадисов, в котором хадисы упорядочены в соответствие в именами сподвижников, рассказавших их от имени пророка Мухаммеда.
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Таваф вокруг Каабы
Тавассуль (араб. توسُّل‎‎ — искать близости, добиваться расположения) — способ приблизиться к Аллаху посредством другого человека, прекрасными именами Аллаха или хорошими поступками.
Таджсим (араб. تجسیم‎‎) — придание Аллаху тела, антропоморфизм.
Таклид (араб. تقلید‎‎ — подражание, имитация) — следование делу авторитета.
Такфир (араб. تکفیر‎‎) — обвинение в неверии (куфре).
Таслим (араб. تسلیم‎‎), Ассаламу алайкум ва рахматуллах (араб. السلام علیکم ورحمة الله‎‎) — форма приветствия мусульман, которое означает: «Мир вам и милость Аллаха». Произносится в конце намаза.
Тахарат (араб. طهارة‎‎ — очищение, омовение) — ритуальное очищение, включающее в себя малое омовение (вуду) и ритуальное купание (гусль)
Гусль (араб. غسل‎‎ — купание) — акт полного очищения тела путём ритуального купания.
Вуду (араб. وضوء‎‎ — омовение) — ритуальное омовение, являющееся обязательным условием для совершения намаза, тавафа, прикосновения к Корану, включающее в себя омовение лица, рук, головы и ног.
Таяммум (араб. تیمم‎‎ — тайаммум) — очищение песком или специальным камнем, совершаемое в особых случаях вместо омовения водой.
Истинджа (араб. استنجاء‎‎ — подмывание) — правила поведения в туалете (а также в ситуации, сопровождающей мочеиспускание и испражнение), предписанные мусульманину шариатом.
Масх (араб. المَسْحُ‎‎ — протирание) — стирка и чистка одежды и обуви, протирание кожаных носков.
[править]У

Ураза (тюрк. ураза), Саум (араб. صوم‎‎) — пост, предписанный в месяце Рамадан.
Ифтар (араб. إفطار ‎‎ — разговение) — прием пищи после захода солнца во время поста.
Сухур (араб. سحور ‎‎ — завтрак) — предрассветный приём пищи во время поста.
Ураза-байрам (тюрк. ураза байрам), Ид аль-Фитр (араб. عید الفطر‎‎) — праздник разговения, отмечаемый в честь окончания поста в месяц Рамадан.
[править]Ф

Фетва, Фатуа (араб. فتوى‎‎ — заключение) — решение муфтия о соответствии того или иного действия, явления Корану и Шариату.
Фикх (араб. فقه‎‎ — понимание, знание) — исламское право, юриспруденция.
Фитра (араб. فطرة‎‎ — природа, инстинкт) — первозданное естество человека; идея человека; человек в его наилучших возможностях.
[править]Х

Хадж (араб. حج‎‎ — паломничество), Умра (араб. عمرة‎‎ — посещение, визит) — паломничество в Мекку.
Сай (араб. سعى‎‎ — бег) — семикратное прохождение определенным образом расстояния между холмами Сафа и Марва
Джамарат (араб. رمی الجمرات‎‎ — бросание камней) — обряд бросания камней в столбы символизирующие шайтана.
Таваф (араб. طواف‎‎ — обход вокруг) — ритуальный обход против часовой стрелки вокруг Каабы и Хиджр Исмаила во время хаджа.
Тальбия ((араб. التلبیة) — молитва повторяемая многократно паломниками во время всего хаджа, пока паломник находится в состоянии ихрама.
Ташрик (араб. أیام التشریق‎‎ — дни ташрик) — одиннадцатое, двенадцатое и тринадцатое числа месяца зу-ль-хиджжа, когда мусульмане совершают жертвоприношения и возвеличивают всевышнего Аллаха.
Хадис (араб. حدیث‎‎ — сообщение), Хабар (араб. خبار‎‎) — рассказ, содержащий слова пророке Мухаммеда или описывающий его жизнь и деяния, переданный через цепочку учёных-мухаддисов (иснад).
Иснад (араб. إسناد‎‎ — опора) — цепочка рассказчиков передающих хадис от пророка Мухаммеда.
Матн (араб. متن‎‎ — доска) — слова и действия пророка Мухаммеда, описанные в хадисе.
Риваят (араб. روایه‎‎ — версия) — одна из версий хадиса идущая от разных передатчиков.
Кудси (араб. الحدیث القدسی‎‎ — святой хадис) — хадис, в котором приводятся прямые слова Аллаха не вошедшие в Коран.
Ахад (араб. ‎‎ — ) — одиночный хадис.
Ханиф (араб. حنیف‎‎ — человек склоняющийся к единобожию) — религия пророка Ибрахима, которую исповедовал пророк Мухаммед до начала пророческой миссии.
Хиджра (араб. هجرة‎‎ — переселение) — вынужденное переселение мусульман из Мекки в Медину в 622 г. Это явилось новой вехой в истории ислама, поэтому мусульманское летосчисление начинается со дня переселения пророка Мухаммеда (15-16 июля 622 г.).
[править]Ш

Шайтан (араб. شیطان‎‎), Иблис (араб. إبلیس‎‎) — сатана, дьявол.
Шариат (араб. شریعة‎‎ — источник) — совокупность правовых, морально-этических и религиозных норм ислама, охватывающая значительную часть жизни мусульманина и провозглашаемая в исламе как «вечное и неизменное» Божественное установление; одна из конфессиональных форм религиозного права.
Шафаат (араб. شفاعة‎‎ — заступничество) — заступничество, которое будет разрешено Аллахом сделать в день Страшного суда пророкам во главе с Мухаммадом за всех грешников-мусульман для того, чтобы они были избавлены от адских мук и вошли в рай.
Шахада (араб. الشهادة‎‎ — свидетельство) — свидетельство Единобожия и посланнической миссии пророка Мухаммеда.
Шейх (араб. شیخ‎‎ — старик), Муршид (араб. مرشد‎‎ — руководитель) , Устаз (араб. أستاذ‎‎ — учитель) — в суфизме руководитель тариката.

[править]Э

Этнический мусульманин (араб. مسلم جغرافیا‎‎ — муслим джуграфий) — термин для обозначения мусульман, родившихся в мусульманских семьях, но не обязательно соблюдающие все каноны ислама.
[править]Я

Содержание: А Б В Г Д З И К Л М Н О П Р С Т У Ф Х Ч Ш Э Я
[править]Сокращения

Да благословит его Аллах и приветствует- ﷺ, (МЕИБ), (САС), (САВС), (СААС), (С), (ص)
Мир ему — (МЕ), (АС), (М)
Да будет доволен им Аллах — (РА)
Год Хиджры — Г. Х.
[править]Краткий словарь арабских слов и выражений

Категории людей и территорий
Термин араб. ‎‎ Значение
Мусульмане
Муслим مسلم мусульманин
Мумин مؤمن верующий
Мувахид موحد монотеист
Мутасиб مُتَعَصِّب фанатик
Фасик فاسق нечестивец
Фаджир فاجر грешник
Неверующие
Джахиль جهل невежда
Зиндик زِنْدِیقٌ еретик
Ахль аль-Китаб اهل الکتاب люди Писания
Зимми أهل الذمة люди договора
Мульхид مُلْحِد атеист
Мунафик منافق лицемер
Муртад مرتد отступник
Мушаббихит антропоморфист
Мушрик مشرک многобожник
Деление земли в Исламе
Дар аль-Ислам دار الإسلام земля ислама
Дар аль-Амн دار الأمن земля безопасности
Дар ас-Салам دار السلام земля мира
Дар ат-Таухид دار التوحید земля единобожия
Дар аль-Ахд دار العهد земля перемирия
Дар аль-Куфр دار الکفر земля неверия
Дар ад-Даават دار الدعوة земля призыва
Дар аль-Харб دار الحرب земля войны
Дар аль-Хийад دار الحیاد нейтральная земля
Дар аль-Худна دار الهدنة земля спокойствия
Дар ас-Сульх دار الصلح земля договора
География
Шам الشَّام Левант
Магриб المغرب запад
Хиджаз الحجاز
Арафат عرفات Арафат
прочее
Джамаат جامعة община
Умма أُمَّة нация
Ахль Фитра أهل الفطرة люди фитры
Кади قاضی судья
Муалим معلم учитель
Муэдзин مُؤَذِّنٌ призывающий
Термин араб. ‎‎ Значение
Эсхатология
Райские сады
Адн عدن Эдем
Мава المأوى приют
Наим النعیم благодать
Фирдаус الفردوس райский сад
Райские реки
Каусар الکوثر изобилие
Маин райская река
Сальсабиль سلسبیل нектар
Тасним تسنیم райская река
Уровни ада
Джахим جحیم геенна
Лаза ад
Нар النَّار огонь
Саир السَّعِیر пламя
Сакар سَقَر преисподняя
Хавийа الْهَاوِیَة пропасть
Хутама الحطمه сокрушающий
прочее
Гурия حوریة райская дева
Сират الصِّرَاطُ путь, мост
Сур الصُّورِ труба
Мизан الْمِیزَانُ весы
Священные Писания الکتب المقدسة
Забур زبور Псалтырь
Инджиль الإنجیل Евангелие
Кур'ан قرآن Коран
Сухуф الصُّحُف свитки
Таурат توراة Тора
Структура Корана
Аят آیة знамение
Джуз جزء
Манзиль
Сура سورة
Хизб حزب
Коранические науки
Таджвид تجوید
Тартиль ترتیل распев
Тафсир تفسیر толкование
.
.
Шариат и Фикх
Термин араб. ‎‎ Значение
Источники шариата
Адат عادات обычаи, традиции
Далиль دَلِیل доказательство
Кияс القیاس аналогия
Манхадж منهج метод
Предписания حُکْم
Мустахабб مستحب желательное
Мандуб مَنْدُوب рекомендуемое
Муштабих مُشْتَبِه сомнительное
Фард فرض обязательное
Ваджиб واجب необходимое
Суннат سنة желательное
Мубах مباح допустимое
Халяль حلال разрешённое
Макрух مکروه нежелательное
Харам حرام запрещённое
Грехи
Куфр کفر неверие
Нифак نفاق лицемерие
Ширк شرک многобожие
Бухтан بهتان наговор
Гыйба غیبة обсуждение
Зина الزنا прелюбодеяние
Риба ربا ростовщичество
Рия الرِّیَاء показуха
Казф قذف поношение
Виды наказания
Дийя دیة
Кисас قِصَاص месть
Раджм رجم камень
Тазир تعزیر осуждение
Хадд حد предел
Степени достоверности хадисов
Даиф ضَعِیف слабый
Мутаватир متواتر согласованный
Сахих صَحِیح достоверный
Хасан حسن хороший
Шазз شاذ аномальный
Мавду موضوع сфабрикованный
.
.
Молитва в Исламе
Термин араб. ‎‎ Значение
Ежедневные молитвы
Фаджр الْفَجْر рассветная
Зухр الظُّهْر полуденная
Аср عصر предвечерняя
Магриб المغرب вечерняя
Иша عشاء ночная
Обязательные молитвы
Ид-намаз صلاة العید праздничный
Джума намаз صلاة الجمعة пятничный
Витр وتر нечётный
Желательные молитвы
Духа الضحى утро
Истиска اِسْتِسْقَاء
Истихара اِسْتِخَارَة
Ратибат صلاة التطوع
Намаз-тасбих صلاة التسابیح
Тахаджуд تهجُّد
Таравих تراویح
Кусуф کسوف солн. затмение
Хусуф خسوف лун. затмение
Намаз-вуду صلاة الوضوء намаз омовения
Хаджат حاجة
Формы молитвы
Хауф خوف страх
Каср-намаз قصر الصلاة сокращённый
Джамаат намаз صلاة الجمعة коллективный
Элементы намаза
Ракаат رکعة
Кираат стояние
Руку поясной поклон
Кыям قیامة стояние
Суджуд سجود земной поклон
Кугуд сидение
Элементы мечети
Минарет منارة маяк
Минбар منبر кафедра
Михраб محراب ниша
прочее
Дуа دعاء мольба
Ташаххуд تَّشَهُّد свидетельство
.
Термин араб. ‎‎ Значение
Исламская одежда
Хиджаб حجاب покрывало
Абайя أباءة
Джильбаб جلباب халат
Изар الأزار покрывало
Никаб نقاب завеса
Химар خمار вуаль
Чадра چادر палатка
Исламская экономика
Мурабаха مرابحة
Мушарака مشارکة
Такафуль التکافل
Мудараба المضاربة
.
Термин араб. ‎‎ Значение
Абд عبد слуга, раб
Адаб أدب этикет
Адль عدل справедливость
Азан أَذَان призыв
Аманат أمانة вверенное
Арш العرش Трон
Ашура عاشوراء Ашура
Баракат برکة благословение
Вакуф وقف остановка
Васаль وِصَال
Гарем الْحَرِیم отделённое
Дин الدین религия
Ислам إسلام покорность
Каза قَضَاءُ возмещение
Термин араб. ‎‎ Значение
Мавлид مَوْلِدُ рождение
Маджлис مجلس собрание
Масих مسیح мессия
Медресе مدرسة школа
Муджаз مُجَاز разрешение
Нашид نشید песня
Ният نیّة намерение
Ризк رزق продовольствие
Сабр صْبِرْ терпение
Саваб ثواب вознаграждение
Сакина سکینة спокойствие
Сафар صفر путешествие
Сира السیرة биография
Сифат صفات атрибут
Термин араб. ‎‎ Значение
Таваккуль توکُّل упование
Тагут طاغوت идол, тиран
Таква تَقْوَ страх
Такия تقیّة благочестие
Тауба تَوْبَة покаяние
Таухид توحید единобожие
Фитна فتنة смута
Хидаят هدایة руководство
Хиджама حجامة кровопускание
Хитан ختان обрезание
Шукр شکر благодарность
Шура شورى совет
.
.
Термин араб. ‎‎ Значение
Суфийские термины
Байа بیعة присяга
Ваджд وجود бытиё
Гайб غیب сокровенное
Карамат کرامت
Макам مقام
Мюрид مُرِید ученик
Силсила سلسلة ряд, цепь
Табарук
Тарикат طریقة путь
Тасаввуф التصوّف суфизм
Фана فناء небытие
Хакикат حقیقة истина
.
Выражение араб. ‎‎ Перевод
Алейхи ас-салам علیه السلام мир ему
Аминь آمین да будет так
Ахи أخی мой брат
Бисми-Ллях بسم الله с именем Аллаха
Валлах والله (Клянусь) Аллахом
Джаль Джалялах جل جلاله Всемогущий
Ухти أختی моя сестра
Выражение араб. ‎‎ Перевод
Азза ва-Джалль عز وجل Всемогущий и Великий
Аллаху Алим الله عالم Аллах Всезнающий
Ид мубарак عید مبارک благословенный праздник
Ин шаа-Ллах إن شاء الله как пожелает Аллах
Рахимаху-Ллах رَحِمَهُ الله да помилует его Аллах
Фи сабили-Ллях فی سبیل الله на пути Аллаха
Ярхамука-Ллах یرحمک الله да помилует тебя Аллах
Выражение араб. ‎‎ Перевод
Баракаллаху фикум بارک الله فیکم да благословит вас Аллах
Джазака-Ллаху хайран جَزَاکَ اللهُ خَیْرا Да воздаст тебе Аллах благом
Ма шаа-Ллах ما شاء الله как (хорошо, что) пожелал Аллах
Радиа-Ллаху анху رَضِیَ اللهُ عَنْهُ да будет доволен им Аллах
Cадака-Ллаhу ль-Азим صدق الله العظیم Истину сказал Аллах
Субханаху ва Тааля سبحانه و تعالى Свят Он и Велик
Ухиббука фи-Ллях أحبک فی الله Я люблю тебя ради Аллаха
[править]См. также

Портал «Ислам»
Ислам в Викисловаре?
Ислам в Викицитатнике?
Ислам в Викитеке?
Ислам на Викискладе?
Ислам в Викиновостях?
[+] Ислам
[+] Арабские фразы
[+] Исламские термины
[+] Понятия ислама

[править]Ссылки

Исламский энциклопедический словарь, А. Али-заде
Мусульманский справочник
Русско-арабский терминологический словарь проповедника
Словарь Askimam.ru
Исламская глоссария
Словарь суфийских терминов

Это заготовка статьи об исламе. Вы можете помочь проекту, исправив и дополнив её.
[показать] Намаз
[показать] Хадж и умра
[показать] Исламское духовенство
[показать] Исламский календарь и праздники
[показать] Ритуальная чистота в исламе (Тахарат)
Категории: ГлоссарииИсламИсламские термины

قس آلمانی

Viele der hier aufgeführten Begriffe entstammen der traditionellen islamischen Weltsicht und beziehen sich oft auch auf rechtliche Aspekte. Obwohl sie wohl noch weitestgehend mit traditioneller Bedeutung gebraucht werden, gab und gibt es Bemühungen, einige Begriffe neu zu definieren. Bestes Beispiel ist „Dschihad“, der von einem Lager nur noch defensiv-friedlich verstanden werden will, vom fundamentalistischen Lager jedoch extrem aggressiv verstanden wird, weshalb man diese Leute auch manchmal als „Dschihadisten“ bezeichnet.
Die lateinische Umschrift wird in Namenskonventionen/Arabisch erklärt.
Inhaltsverzeichnis A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
A [Bearbeiten]

āḫira / ākhira
(‏الآخرة‎ al-āḫira), ‘das Jenseits’.
adab
(‏أدب‎ adab) ‘gutes Benehmen, feine Sitte’, dann auch die schöne Literatur sowie der klassische Bildungskanon.
adhān / aḏān
(‏أذان‎ aḏān) Gebetsruf (öffentlich oder privat) zu den fünf Pflichtgebeten (Salat) des Tages.
'adl
(‏عدل‎) Gerechtigkeit, i.R. Unbescholtenheit
ahl al-bait
(‏أهل البیت‎) “Die Angehörigen des Hauses”, d.h. die Familie Muḥammads und seine Nachkommen.
Ahl al-Kisa
(‏أهل الکساء‎, ahl al-kisā’) Die fünf «Leute des Mantels», eine der vielen schiitischen Bezeichnungen für Mohammed und seine engsten Angehörigen Fatima, 'Ali, Hasan und Husain. Mohammed soll sie unter seinem Mantel genommen haben. Auch ashab al-kisa (‏أصحاب الکساء‎, aṣḥāb al-kisā’) „Besitzer des Mantels“ genannt.
ahl al-kitab
(‏أهل الکتاب‎) Koranischer Begriff und Terminus der Jurisprudenz: „die Schriftbesitzer“, d. h. die Juden und Christen, die unter islamischer Herrschaft den Rechtsstatus als Dhimmi (Schutzbefohlene) erhalten.
Allāh
(‏الله‎ allāh), „Gott“, d.h. der eine Gott [im Gegensatz zu ‘ein Gott’ (‏اله‎ ilāh ‘Gott’,‘Gottheit’)].
ansar
(‏الأنصار‎) Bezeichnung für die medinensischen „Helfer“/„Unterstützer“ Mohammeds.
aqida
(‏عقیدة‎) Glaubensfundament, Glaubensinhalte; Glaubensrichtung
aschura
(‏عاشوراء‎, ’āschūrā’) „der zehnte (Tag)“, imamitisches und alewitisches Trauerfest am 10. Muharram zur Erinnerung an Husains Martyrium bei Kerbela. Gemäß der Lehre der Nusairier erlitt Husain nicht den Märtyrertod. Er stieg an diesem Tag zum Himmel auf und ließ seinen Doppelgänger Hanzala ibn As'ad asch-Schibami (‏حنظلة بن أسعد الشبامی‎) zurück, der sich für ihn aufopferte.
aya
(‏آیة‎) Zeichen, Koranvers, Vers einer Sure
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bai'a baiʿa, bai'a(t)
(‏بیعة‎) Treuegelöbnis, Gefolgseid, Huldigung
basmala
(‏بسملة ‎) Die religiöse Formel bi-smi llāhi r-raḥmāni r-raḥīm, „Im Namen des barmherzigen und gnädigen Gottes“; der Begriff basmala bezieht sich auf die gesprochene (rezitierte) wie auch die geschriebene Form derselben.
bid'a
(‏بدعة‎) Neuerung, Ketzerei
C [Bearbeiten]

al-chawaridsch
(‏الخوارج‎) «Die Abtrünnigen», die die „Partei Ali's“ verließen. Eine Spittergruppe der Schi'iten im ersten muslimischen Jahrhundert (7. Jahrhundert n. Chr.).
chatib
(‏خطیب‎) Islamischer Prediger, der die Freitagspredigt (chutba) hält (siehe unten).
chutba
(‏خطبة‎) (Freitags)Predigt über religionsrelevante Themen. Eine weitere Bedeutung des Wortes ist: Verlobung.
D [Bearbeiten]

daddschal
(‏الدجال‎) wörtlich der Lügner, eine endzeitliche Verführergestalt („der Antichrist“).
dar al-sulh
(‏دار الصلح‎) Gebiete außerhalb des „Hauses des Islam“, mit denen es zwischenstaatliche Verträge gibt.
dar al-harb
(‏دار الحرب‎) „Haus des Krieges“, alle im Prozess der islamischen Eroberung stehenden Gebiete.
dar al-islam
(‏دار الإسلام‎) „Haus des Islam“, alle Gebiete unter islamischer Herrschaft.
da'wa
(‏دعوة‎) Ruf, Aufruf zum Islam (im bekehrenden Sinne)
dhikr
(‏ذکر‎) Erwähnung (Lobpreisung) Gottes, Anrufung Gottes
dhimmi
(‏ذمی‎) Monotheisten, die mit eingeschränktem Rechtsstatus als Schutzbefohlene unter islamischer Herrschaft geduldet werden
dschinn (ǧinn)
(‏جنی/جن/جان‎) Fabelwesen der arabischen Mythologie, im Koran Schaden und Schrecken verursachende Dämonen oder Geister oder Doppelgänger der Menschen
dschihad (ǧihād)
(‏جهاد‎) : Islamisch motivierter Kampf. Zur Verteidigung Pflicht jedes einzelnen Muslim (fard ain); zur Eroberung neuer Gebiete kollektive Pflicht aller Muslime (fard kifaya). Im Sufismus auch Kampf gegen die Triebseele.
dschahiliyya (ǧāhiliyya)
(‏جاهلیة‎) islamische Bezeichnung für die präislamische Epoche der „Unwissenheit“
dschami' (ǧāmiʿ)
(‏جامع‎) „Versammlung“, (große) Moschee, Freitagsmoschee/Hauptmoschee, in der gepredigt wird; zentraler Versammlungsort
dschizya ǧizya
(‏جزیة‎) Tribut, den Dhimmis entrichten müssen
du'a duʿāʾ
(‏دعاء‎) : Fürbitte; Bittgebet (mit der Präp. li); Verfluchung (mit der Präp.ʿalā)
F [Bearbeiten]

fana
(‏فناء‎) Zentraler Begriff des Sufismus, das «Entwerden»
fard
(‏فرض‎) Religiöse Pflicht (ein Gebet, Fasten, usw.); Pflichtteil im islamischen Erbrecht
fatwa
(‏فتوى‎) Rechtsgutachten nach der islamischen Jurisprudenz (fiqh).
fiqh
(‏فقه‎) Islamische Rechtswissenschaft
fitra
(‏فطرة‎) Natur, Schöpfung; angeborene Naturanlage (und damit Gottergebenheit) eines jeden Menschen.
G [Bearbeiten]

ghusl
(‏غسل‎) Rituelle Ganzkörperwaschung
H [Bearbeiten]

hadd
(‏حد‎ Pl. hudud (‏حدود‎) „Grenze“, die im Koran erwähnten Kapitalverbrechen und deren Strafen
hadith ḥadīṯ
(‏حدِیث‎) Pl. aḥādīṯ(‏حادیث‎) Überlieferungen über Taten und Aussagen des Propheten Muḥammad.
hadith qudsi
(‏حدیث قدسی‎, hadīth qudsī) „heiliger Hadith“, d.h. eine Überlieferung, in der ein (außerkoranisches) Gotteswort mitgeteilt wird.
haddsch
(‏حج‎) Die religiöse Pflicht der Pilgerfahrt nach Mekka, eine der fünf Säulen des Islam
hadrat / ḥaḍra(t) / ḥażrat / hazret
(‏حضرة‎) „Gegenwart“; pesonders in der persischen Verbindung ḥażrat-i (Hazreti) als Titel und Anredeform gebraucht, die hohen Respekt zum Ausdruck bringt
hafiz
(‏حافظ‎) Jemand, der den Koran auswendig kennt; weiblich: Hafiza (ḥāfiẓa).
halal
(‏حلال‎) Im Koran und in der Jurisprudenz festgelegtes „Erlaubtes“ für den Gläubigen
Ḥarbī
(‏حربی‎) Nicht-muslimischer Bewohner des Dar al-harb, der keinerlei Rechte hat
haqiqa
(‏حقیقة‎) Wahrheit
haram
(‏حرام‎) Im Koran festgelegtes "Verbotenes" für den Gläubigen
hidschab
(‏حجاب‎) Wörtl. Übersetzung: "Vorhang", etwas das verhüllt, versteckt, bedeckt; wird als Bezeichnung für verhüllende Kleidung bei muslimischen Frauen verwendet.
hidschra
(‏هجرة‎) Auszug Muhammads und seiner Gefährten aus Mekka nach Medina
hudna
(‏هدنة‎) Zeitlich begrenzter Waffenstillstand, auch mit Nichtmuslimen möglich
I [Bearbeiten]

'ibada
(‏عبادة‎, ʿibāda) gottesdienstliche Handlung
'id al-adha
(‏عید الأضحى‎, ʿīd al-adhā) «Opferfest» am 10. Dhu l-hiddscha während der Wallfahrtswoche.
'id al-fitr
(‏عید الفطر‎, ʿīd al-fitr) «Fest des Fastenbrechens» am 1. Schawwal nach dem Ende des Ramadans.
idschma
(‏إجماع‎) Konsens der Rechtsgelehrten
idschtihad
(‏اجتهاد‎) Entscheidungsfindung aufgrund eigenständiger Interpretation der Rechtsquellen (siehe Fiqh); auch allg. für "selbständiges Denken"
ihram
(‏إحرام‎) Weihezustand des Mekkapilgers
'ilm
(‏علم‎) Wissenschaft im allgemeinen; Kenntnis des Hadith
imam
(‏إمام‎) Vorbeter; jmd. der anderen vorsteht
imama
(‏إمامة‎) Das Imamat
iman
(‏ إیمان‎) Glaube
iqama
(‏إقامة‎) Die Aufforderung zum Gebet in der Moschee
islam
(‏إسلام‎) Von der arab. Wortwurzel „s-l-m“; abgeleitet Hingabe (an Gott). Islam bedeutet somit „Unterwerfung“ und/oder „Hinwendung“ an den (einzigen) Gott.
isnad
(‏إسناد‎) Überliefererkette eines Hadith, in der die Überlieferer der Aussprüche und Taten von Mohammed angeführt sind.
israf
(‏إسراف‎) Verschwendung, mehr tun als vom Islam gefordert
K [Bearbeiten]

kalam
(‏کلام‎) Scholastische Theologie
kalif
(‏خلیفة‎) Islamischer Herrscher (Nachfolger Mohammeds), siehe auch Kalifat
kalifat : Islamische Herrschaft durch einen Kalifen.
koran
(‏قرآن‎) „Lesung / Rezitation“, der Koran, die heilige Schrift der Muslime - in erster Linie als rezitierter Text, dann auch als geschriebenes Buch (muṣḥaf).
kufr
(‏کفر‎) „Leugnung“, von der Wortwurzel kafara, was bedecken, verbergen bedeutet; wer die Wahrheit kennt, sie aber „bedeckt“, d.h. sie leugnet, begeht kufr, ist also kāfir („Leugner“).
kafir kāfir
(‏کافر‎) Jemand, der die Wahrheit leugnet, ein „Ungläubiger“; im juristischen Sinne auch „Nichtmuslim“.
takfir : (‏تکفیر‎) Jemanden zum Ungläubigen (kafir) erklären; meint meist die Verketzerung von Muslimen mit abweichender Meinung.
al-kutub al-arba'a
(‏الکتب الأربعة‎) Die «Vier Bücher»; die vier imamitischen (zwölferschiitischen) „kanonischen“ Hadith-Sammlungen:
al-Kāfī (‏الکافی‎) «das Genügende» oder «das Umfassende» von Abu Dscha'far Muhammad ibn Ya'qub al-Kulini / al-Kulaini ar-Razi (‏أبو جعفر محمد بن یعقوب الکلینی الرازی‎) gestorben 328/939.
[Kitāb] Man lā yahduruhu 'l-faqīh (‏من لا یحضره الفقیه‎) «Das Buch dessen, der keinen Rechtsgelehrten bei sich hat» von Abu Dscha'far Muhammad ibn 'Ali (‏أبو جعفر محمد بن علی‎), bekannt als Ibn Babawaih / Ibn Babuyah al-Qummi (‏ابن بابویه القمی‎, gestorben 381/991.
Tahdhīb al-aḥkām (‏تهذیب الأحکام‎) «Die Revision der rechtlichen Bestimmungen» von Abu Dscha'far Muhammad ibn al-Hasan at-Tusi (‏أبو جعفر محمد بن الحسن الطوسی‎) gestorben 459/1067 oder 460/1068.
al-Istibṣār fī-mā 'chtulifa fīhi min al-achbār (‏الاستبصار فیما اختلف فیه من الأخبار‎) «Die Betrachtung der umstrittenen Überlieferungen» auch von at-Tusi.
al-kutub as-sitta
(‏الکتب الستة‎) Die «Sechs Bücher», die sechs (gelegentlich als „kanonisch“ bezeichneten) sunnitischen Hadith-Sammlungen:
Ṣaḥīḥ al-Buchārī = al-Dschāmi' as-sahīh (‏الجامع الصحیح‎) «Die korrekte Sammlung» von Abu 'Abdallah Muhammad ibn Isma'il al-Buchari al-Dschu'fi (‏أبو عبد الله محمد بن إسماعیل البخاری الجعفی‎) gestorben 256/870.
Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim = al-Dschāmi' as-sahīh (‏الجامع الصحیح‎) «Die korrekte Sammlung» von Abu l-Husain Muslim ibn al-Haddschadsch al-Quschairi an-Naisaburi (‏أبو الحسین مسلم بن الحجاج القشیری النیسابوری‎), gestorben 261/875.
Sunan at-Tirmidhī = as-Sunan oder al-Dschāmi' as-sahīh fī s-sunan (‏الجامع الصحیح فی السنن‎) «Die korrekte Sammlung der Traditionen» von Abu 'Isa Muhammad ibn 'Isa at-Tirmidhi (‏أبو عیسى محمد بن عیسى الترمذی‎) gestorben 279/892.
Kitāb as-Sunan (‏کتاب السنن‎) «Das Buch der Traditionen» von Abū Dāwūd Sulaimān ibn al-Aschʿath as-Sidschistānī (Abū Dāwūd Sulaimān ibn al-Ašʿaṯ as-Siǧistānī) (‏أبو داود سلیمان بن الأشعث السجستانی‎) gestorben 275/889.
Kitāb as-Sunan (‏کتاب السنن‎) «Das Buch der Traditionen» von Abu 'Abd ar-Rahman Ahmad ibn 'Ali an-Nasaʾi (‏أبو عبد الرحمن أحمد بن علی النسائی‎) gestorben 303/915.
Kitāb as-Sunan (‏کتاب السنن‎) «Das Buch der Traditionen» von Abu 'Abdallah Muhammad ibn Yazid ar Raba'i al-Qazwini (‏أبو عبد الله محمد بن یزید الربعی القزوینی‎), bekannt als Ibn Madschah / Ibn Māǧah (‏ابن ماجه‎), gestorben 273/887.
L [Bearbeiten]

lahut
(‏لاهوت‎, lāhūt) „Gottheit, Göttlichkeit“, auch „Gotteswelt“, «Gott in seiner wahren Realität»; (ʿilm al-lāhūt bedeutet auch „Theologie“).
Lailatu 'l-Qadr
(‏لَیْلَة الْقَدْرِ‎) Nacht der Allmacht, Nacht des Schicksals, Nacht der Bestimmung (27. Ramadan eines jeden Jahres).
M [Bearbeiten]

madhhab
(‏مذهب‎) Rechts- oder andere wissenschaftliche Schule
madrasa
(‏مدرسة‎) Koranschule oder theologische Hochschule
mahdi
(‏مهدى‎) der erwartete Welt- und Glaubenserneuerer
makruh
(‏مکروه‎) verpönte Handlung
malak
(‏ملک‎) Engel
ma'rifa
(‏معرفة‎) Erkenntnis, Gnosis
masdschid
(‏مسجد‎) Platz des «Niederwerfens», meist eher kleine Moschee (Moschee kommt von masdschid), für das fünfmal tägliche Gebet, oft im Gegensatz zur dschami'.
mihrab
(‏محراب‎) Gebetsnische, zeigt die Richtung nach Mekka an
minbar
(‏منبر‎) «Kanzel», erhöhter Platz zum Vortrag der freitäglichen chutba
mu'allim
(‏معلم‎) allgemein Lehrer
mu'ahid
(‏معاهد‎) tolerierter nicht-islamischer Andersgläubiger
mudschahid
(‏مجاهد‎) Kämpfer für den Glauben
mufti
(‏مفتى‎) (staatlich anerkannter) Rechtsgelehrter, jemand der Fatwas erstellen kann.
muhadschir
(‏مهاجر‎) meist in Plural: al-muhadschirun, die mekkanischen Gefährten Mohammeds, die aus Mekka nach Medina ausgewandert sind. «Auswanderer» (zum Beispiel von Indien nach Pakistan)
munadschat
(‏مناجاة‎) «vertraute Zwiesprache»
munafiq
(‏منافق‎) religiöser Heuchler
murtadd
(‏مرتد‎) Apostat, vom Islam Abgefallener, wird mit dem Tode bestraft.
muschrik
(‏مشرک‎) Polytheist
mus'haf
(‏مصحف‎) „gebundenes Buch“, der Koran in Buchform, (arabisches) Koranexemplar.
N [Bearbeiten]

nabiy
(‏نبى‎) Prophet
nafas
(‏نفس‎) eigentlich «Atem». Bei den Alewiten Bezeichnung für eine «Gebetshymne».
nafs
(‏نفس‎) Im religiösem Kontext soviel bedeutend wie «Seele», in anderen Zusammenhängen dagegen «Psyche». Als Zentrum emotionaler Strebungen werden in diesem Empfindungen aufgenommen und verarbeitet sowie Antriebe des Handelns generiert. Die «Seele» gilt dagegen als Akkumulator moralischer Qualitäten der Handlungen des Menschen und als Bewertungsmesser des Letzteren und ist im Unterschied zur Psyche metaphysischer Natur. Nafs hat oft die bedeutung von Triebseele, Ego, selbstsüchtige Wünsche.
nahw
(‏نحو‎) Syntax (Satzbau), in der arabischen Grammatik (im Gegensatz zur Formenlehre, ṣarf).
Q [Bearbeiten]

qibla
(‏قبلة‎) Gebetsrichtung
qiyas
(‏قیاس‎) «Analogieschluss» in der islamischen Rechtswissenschaft Fiqh
R [Bearbeiten]

ramadān
(‏رمضان‎) Fastenmonat
rasul
(‏رسول‎) Gesandter Gottes (nur Adam, Noah, Abraham/Ibrahim, Moses/Musa, Jesus/Isa, Muhammad)
ridda
(‏ردة‎) Abfallen vom Islam, siehe auch murtadd
ruh
(‏روح‎) Geist, im Unterschied zu nafs
Ra'uf raʾūf
(‏رؤوف‎) barmherzig, ar-Raʾūf „der Barmherzige“ ist einer der Namen Gottes.
S [Bearbeiten]

salām
(‏سلام‎) Friede – informeller Gruß, das formelle Pendant dazu lautet as-salāmu ʿalaikum : (‏السلام علیکم‎) der Friede sei mit Dir (Gruß unter Muslimen)
salat, ṣalāh
(‏صلاة‎) Gebet; rituelles Gebet (sowohl Pflicht- als auch freiwilliges Gebet); Pl. ṣalawāt, Bezeichnung für die fünf täglichen Gebete (eine der fünf Säulen des Islam).
sakina
(‏سکینة‎) Im Koran erwähnte innere Ruhe
saum
(‏صوم‎) Fasten, eine der fünf Säulen
schahada
(‏شهادة‎) das Glaubensbekenntnis, eine der fünf Säulen
schari'a
(‏شریعة‎) islamisches Gesetz; für alle Bereiche des Lebens zuständig
schiat ali
(‏شیعة علی‎) «Partei Alis», eine der zwei großen Glaubensrichtungen im Islam
schirk
(‏شرک‎) «Polytheismus», «Vielgötterei», «Idolatrie», manchmal auch jede andere Form des Abweichens
schura
(‏شورى‎) Beratung, Ratsversammlung (die einberufen oder gewählt sein kann), oft mit «Parlament» übersetzt
silsila
(‏سلسلة‎) Kette, meist spirituelle Überlieferungskette im Sufismus (islamische Mystik)
aṣ-Ṣirāṭ
(‏الصراط‎); Weg, besonders der „gerade Weg“ im religiösen Sinne; auch die Sirat-Brücke, eine haarfeine und messerscharfe Brücke, über die am Tag des Jüngsten Gerichts die Seele gehen muss, um ins Paradies zu gelangen.
siyar
(‏سیر ‎) Regelt im islamischen Recht (Fiqh) das Kriegs- und Fremdenrecht.
sunna
(‏سنة‎) «Brauch»,die Summe der Taten und Anweisungen des Propheten. Die zweite Quelle des islamischen Rechts nach dem Koran.
T [Bearbeiten]

tadschwid
(‏تجوید‎) die korrekte Rezitation; Koranrezitation nach den Regeln der Kunst.
tafsir
(‏تفسیر‎) Erklärung, Auslegung des Korans, Exegese; Korankommentar.
taghut
(‏طاغوت‎) (Pl. tawaghit) : Götze, Götzen; Unterdrücker; Irrtum. Wird verstanden als falsche Götter und Dinge, die neben dem einen Gott angebetet werden.
tahāra
(‏طهارة‎) rituelle Reinheit
takbir
(‏تکبیر‎) Aussprechen der Formel Allāhu akbar
taqiyya
(‏تقیة‎, Schutz, sich Schützen; in Gefahr mögliche Verleugnung seines Bekenntnisses gegenüber Feinden.
taqlid
(‏تقلید‎) Nachahmung, der Gegensatz zu idschtihad
taqwa
(‏تقوى‎) Gottesbewusstsein, Frömmigkeit, Gottesfurcht
tariqa
(‏طریقة‎) «Weg», sufischer Pfad oder sufische Gemeinschaft einer bestimmten Richtung
tasawwuf
(‏تصوف‎) Sufismus, die islamische Mystik
tauhid
(‏توحید‎) "Bekennen der Eins-heit Gottes", das Eins-heits-Bekenntnis, nämlich, dass es nur einen Gott gibt, Monotheismus; einer der Glaubensgrundsätze.
tawaf
(‏طواف‎) Die siebenmalige Umrundung der Kaaba in Mekka während der Haddsch (Pilgerreise)
U [Bearbeiten]

'ulama
(‏علماء‎ sing. ‏عالم‎ `alim «Wissender») Islamische Gelehrte, «Wissenschaftler»
umma
(‏أمة‎) Volk, Gemeinschaft; die alle Muslime umfassende muslimische Gemeinde.
'urf
(‏عرف‎) Brauch, Gewohnheitsrecht
W [Bearbeiten]

wahdat al-wudschūd
(‏وحدة الوجود‎) sufischer Seinsmonismus
waqf
(‏وقف‎) wohltätige Stiftung
wasiy
(‏وصی‎, wasīy) (Plural: ausiyā’, (‏أوصیاء‎) «Bevollmächtigter», eigentlich „Testamentsvollstrecker, Sachwalter, Verweser“. Der Terminus wasīy ist ein zentraler Begriff der schi'itischen Imamatslehre; ursprünglich bezeichnete er den nach dem Tode eines Propheten diesen vertretenden Bevollmächtigten; in den schi'itischen Sekten steht es für den Bevollmächtigten des zeitweise verschwundenen oder entrückten Imams.
wudu’
(‏وضوء‎, wuḍūʾ) Die kleine rituelle Reinigung; das Waschen der Hände, des Gesichts, der Unterarme und der Füße vor dem Verrichten des Gebets und vor dem Berühren des Korans.
Z [Bearbeiten]

zakat, zakāh
(‏زکاة‎) wörtlich Reinheit; Pflichtabgabe, Armensteuer, eine der 5 Säulen des Islam.
Siehe auch [Bearbeiten]

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قس اسپانیائی

A continuación una lista de conceptos derivados de la cultura islámica y la tradición árabe, que se expresan como palabras en lengua árabe.
Índice: 0–9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
[editar]A

Adab (أدب)
tradicionalmente se refiere a los buenos modales, como en la etiqueta. Por ejemplo, ser cortés es buen adab. No obstante, el término se puede utilizar ampliamente, y la traducción correcta sería "la manera correcta de proceder con algo", como por ejemplo Aadaab al Qitaal (la manera adecuada de luchar una guerra), en dicho ejemplo el concepto de "etiqueta" no se adecua.
Adhan (أذان)
llamada a la oración; se suele deletrear también Azan, Athan y Adhan.
Ahl al-Kitāb (أهل الکتاب )
"gente del Libro", o seguidores de religiones monoteístas preislámicas con alguna forma de escrituras sagradas consideradas de origen divino, que se mencionan en el Corán: Judaísmo, Cristianismo.
Alá (الله)
el nombre de Dios en árabe.

[editar]H

Hajj (الحجّ haj)
peregrinación a la Meca. Los suníes la consideran el quinto pilar del Islam.
[editar]J

Jihad (جهاد)
lucha. Cualquier lucha seria en nombre de Dios, incluye aspectos personales y físicos en nombre de la corrección y contra el mal.
[editar]Z

Zināa (زناء , زنى)
actividad sexual por fuera del matrimonio (comprende "adulterio" y "fornicación").
[editar]Véase también

99 nombres de Dios
Lista de términos cristianos en árabe
Profetas del Islam
[editar]Referencias

Este artículo fue creado a partir de la traducción del artículo List of Islamic terms in Arabic de la Wikipedia en inglés, bajo la licencia Creative Commons Atribución Compartir Igual 3.0 Unported y la licencia de documentación libre de GNU.
[editar]Bibliografía

Suzanne Haneef, What Everyone Should Know about Islam and Muslims, (Kazi Publications, Chicago), popular introduction
Muzaffar Haleem, The Sun is Rising In the West, (Amana Publications, Beltsville, MD 1999).
Ziauddin Sardar, Muhammad for Beginners, Icon Books, 1994, some sloppiness, from very modern Sufi point of view.
Hans Wehr, A Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic (Spoken Language Services, Ithaca, NY, 1976). ed. J. Milton Cowan. ISBN 0-87950-001-8.
Islam in the World by Malise Ruthven (Gantra Publications, 2006) ISBN 1-86207-906-4
[editar]Enlaces externos

[1] free expressions with audio
Voiced Dictionary of Islamic and Arabic Key Words
Glossary of Islamic terms
Categorías: IslamPalabras y frases en árabeTerminología religiosaAnexos:Religión

قس اندونزیائی
Senarai berikut mengandungi konsep yakni yang dipemerolehan dari kedua-dua tradisi Islam dan Arab, dimana telah diekspresikan sebagai perkataan dalam bahasa Arab. Tujuan utama untuk senarai ini adalah untuk menyahkaburkan ejaan berganda, untuk membuat nota ejaan tidak lagi digunakan untuk konsep ini, untuk kemaskini konsep dalam satu atau dua baris, untuk buat ia mudah untuk satu mencari dan ambil konsep spesifik, dan untuk memberikan panduan kepada konsep unik Islam semua dalam satu tempat.
Memisahkan konsep dalam Islam dari konsep spesifik kepada budaya Arab, atau dari bahasa sendiri, boleh jadi sukar. Banyak konsep bahasa Arab sekular mempunyai maksud sekular bahasa Arab baik juga sebagai maksud Islam. Satu contoh adalah konsep dakwah. Satu dari kerumitan dari bahasa Arab adalah satu perkataan boleh mempunyai maksud yang berganda. Perkataan Islam sendiri adalah contoh baik.
Pembaca sepatutnya juga sedar yakni bahasa Arab ditulis dalam hurufnya sendiri, dengan huruf, simbol, dan perhimpunan ortografik iaitu tidak mempunyai persamaan tepat dalam huruf Latin (lihat abjad Arab). Senarai berikut adalah transliterasi dari istilah dan frasa bahasa Arab. Akibatnya Muslim mungkin transliterasikan sesetengah perkataan Arab berlainannya, seperti din berlawanan kepada deen, dan aqidah berlawanan kepada aqeedah. Kebanyakan barang dalam senarai juga mengandungi ejaan bahasa Arab sebenar.

Isi kandungan
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
[sunting]A

Asyura (عاشوراء)
Hari kesepuluh dari bulan Muharram. Ia adalah hari Allah menyelamatkan Nabi Musa a.s. dan Bani Israel daripada Firaun. Muslim digalakkan untuk berpuasa semasa hari ini. Kepada kaum Syiah, ia juga hari ketika mereka berkabung dengan kematian Imam Syiah ketiga, Hussein bin Ali, bersama dengan keluarganya dan sahabat, dimana telah dibunuh dalam perang di Karbala yang terkenal.
Adab (أدب)
Tradisinya menghuraikan kelakuan baik, sebagai dalam kensantunan. Sebagai contoh, menjadi sopan adalah adab baik. Bagaimanapun, istilah ini boleh digunakan dengan amat meluas, dan terjemahan bersopan menjadi menjadi "cara bersopan untuk lakukan sesuatu," sebagai dalam contoh, Aadab al Qitaal, atau, "Cara Bersopan Berjuang dalam Perang," (Qitaal dalam bahasa Arab bermaksud tempur mortal) dimana kata "kesantunan" tidak sesuaikan konteks.
Abdul (عبد)
hamba, penyembah, buruh. Muslim menganggap mereka sendiri hamba dan buruh Allah. Nama Muslim lazim adalah Abd'allah/Abdullah, atau Hamba Allah. AbdulMalik (Hamba kepada Raja), AbduRahman (Hamba kepada yang Maha mengasihani), AbdulSalam (Hamba kepada Aman) dan sebagainya yang semua dari nama-nama Allah.
Azan (أذان)
memanggil kepada solat (sembahyang)
Adil (عدل)
Keadilan terutamanya keadilan pembekalan: sosial, ekonomi, politik, alam sekitar.
Ahli Kitab (أهل الکتاب)
"Ahli Kitab", atau pengikut dari Pra-Islam beragama monotheistik dengan sesetengah bentuk skriptur dipercayai menjadi asalan kuasa Allah: Yahudi, Kristian dan Hanif.
Ahad (أحد)
bermaksud "hanya", "yang satu". Islamiknya, ahad bermaksud Satu Sendiri, unik, tiada seperti Allah. Al-Wahid adalah salah satu dari nama Allah.
Hukum (أحکام)
hukum dan peraturan al-Quran dan Sunnah. Terdapat lima hukum: Wajib, Mustahab (Sunat), Haram, Makruh, dan Halal.
Ahlul Bait (أهل البیت)
ahli keluarga atau rumah tangga Nabi Muhammad s.a.w.. Bagi kalangan masyarakat Syiah sebagai Masumin (maksum, tak berbuat dosa; suci rohani).
Akhlaq (أخلاق)
Amalan kebaikan. Moral.
Alamin (عالمین)
Secara harfiahnya "dunia", atau alam semsta bagi manusia, jin, malaikat dan semua kewujudan
Alhamdulillah (الحمد لله)
"Segala puji bagi Tuhan!" ayat seruan dalam Qur'an
Allahu Akbar (الله أکبر)
"Tuhan Maha Besar." pernyataan Islamik.
Al-Akhirah (آلآخرة)
Akhirat, alam selepas kematian yang ketika itu ditimbang dan dibalas segala amalan
Alim (عالم)
Yang mengetahui. Sarjana (dalam apa bidang ilmu); saintis (yang mengetahui sains) atau ahli teologi (yang mengetahui agama); serupa dengan Bahasa Jepun bagi sensei, "guru"
Amanah (أمانة)
Kepercayaan. Dalam semua makhluk, hanya manusia diberi "kepercayaan", iaitu kehendak sendiri.
Amin (آمین)
Amin,rayuan yang membawa makna, "Ya Tuhan, terimalah doa kami!" (digunakan oleh Sunah Waljamaah sahaja)
Amir al-Muminin
Dalam sesebuah negara seperti Maghribi, Amir al-Muminin atau (Ketua bagi yang beriman) merupakan ketua agama.
Aminah (أمنة)
Bonda Nabi Muhammad s.a.w. Beliau jatuh sakit dan wafat di Abwa', berhampiran Madinah (dahulu dikenali sebagai Yathrib) apabila baginda masih 6 tahun.
Ansar (أنصار)
"Penolong." Masyarakat Muslim yang memeluk Islam di Madinah yang membantu kaum Muslimin Makkah selepas hiijrah (kaum Muhajirin).
Aqidah (عقیدة)
Fahaman Islam, atau enam rukun iman, yang mengandungi akan kepercayaan kepada Tuhan, Malaikat, para Nabi dan Rasul, hari Akhirat dan Qada serta Qadar.
Akal (عقل)
Kepandaian, kebijaksanaan, buah fikiran, kefahaman
Arba'een (اربعین)
Nombor empat puluh (40).
Rukun Islam (رکن/أرکان)
lima rukn Islam. (Lihat rukun)
Aslim Taslam (أسلم تسلم)
"Menyerah kepada Islam" (Lihat dakwah)
Asar (العصر)
Solat ketiga ketika matahari gelincir menunjukkan bayang sama panjang dengan objek hinggalah matahari terbenam. Juga bermakna "era".
Asharatu mubashshirun (العشرة المبشّرون)
Sepuluh sahabat baginda Muhammad yang dijamin masuk syurga (hanya lama Sunah Waljamaah)
Assalamu 'alaikum (السلام علیکم)
Ucapan selamat masyarakat Islam; secara harfiahnya bermaksud "Sejahtera kepada anda"; dengan tambahan, "Wa Rahmatullahi wa Barakatuhu" bermaksud "dengan Rahmat Tuhan dan Keberkatan-Nya". Jawapan bagi ucapan ini ialah "Wa Alaikumus Salam wa Rahmatullahi wa Barakatuhu"--'Dan kepadamu juga Sejahtera dan Rahmat Tuhan dan Keberkatan-Nya'.
Ia juga salah satu bentuk zikir akan Kekuasaan Tuhan, apabila orang Islam mengucapkannya kepada orang Islam lain, ia bersamaan 30 pahala dan 30 pahala juga bagi yang menjawapnya (10 pahala bagi setiap perkataan).
Astaghfirullah (أستغفر الله)
"Aku pohon keampunan Tuhan." pernyataan Islam.
Auzubillah (أعوذ بالله)
"Ku mohon perlindungan Tuhan". Ini juga frasa permulaan bagi dua surah Qur'an.
Awliya'|Awliyā’ (أولیاء)
Kawan, pelindung, pembantu, penjaga, pemelihara (bentuk mufrad: wali)
Aurat (عورة)
Bahagian badan manusia yang harus ditutup kecuali di hadapan pasangan. Ia juga boleh digunakan untuk merujuk kepada apa yang harus disembunyikan oleh seorang wanita di hadapan lelaki lain.
Ayat (آیة), plural āyāt (آیات)
Suatu tanda. Lebih khusus lagi, ia merujuk kepada ayat dalam al-Quran.
Āyat ullāh (آیة الله, also spelled Ayatollah)
Tanda Allah, gelaran yang diberikan kepada para cendekiawan agama yang mendapat kedudukan tertinggi dalam mazhab Syiah.
‘Azl (عزل)
Koitus terganggu, persetubuhan yang dicirikan oleh pengeluaran zakar sebelum pemancutan. Perkataan ini secara harfiah bermaksud "pemencilan".
[sunting]B

Baitullah (بیت الله baytu-llāhi): Masjid, secara harfiahnya bermaksud "rumah Allah".
Barakah (برکة)
keberkatan. Juga, kebijaksanaan rohaniah dan keberkatan disampaikan dari tuan ke murid.
Barzakh (برزخ)
hidup selepas mati di mana roh yang telah mati dipindahkan seberang perbatasan dunia manusia ke dalam dunia rohaniah.
Basher (بشر)
Manusia. Secara harfiah bermaksud 'muka' tetapi umumnya digunakan untuk merujuk kepada orang (lelaki/perempuan).
Baṣīrah (بصیرة)
Pandangan jauh, kenampakan, bertanggapan, ilmu dalam. Kadang-kadang digunakan oleh umat Sufi untuk menandakan kemampuan untuk secara lanjut melihat suatu Kebenaran transendental.
Bid‘ah (بدعة)
Pembaharuan dalam agama, umpamanya mereka cara-cara baru untuk menyembah. Bidaah yang buruk dianggap sebagai penyimpangan dan merupakan suatu dosa yang berat untuk banyak Muslim.
Binti (بنت)
anak perempuan
Bismillah (بسم الله)
"Dengan nama Allah".
Burda (بردة)
bukan suatu istilah bahasa Arab; ia bermakna "langsir" dalam bahasa Parsi. Ia bermakna menutupi atau tutup.
Baiat (بیعة)
suatu sumpah kesetiaan pada seorang pemimpin, mengikut tradisi Khalifah atau Imam.

[sunting]D

Dajjal (دجّال)
Perkataan/aksara Islamic yang sama erti dengan perkataan Antichrist atau Dajjal; beerti "penipu" atau "tidak boleh dipercayai"
Dallal (ضلال)
going astray
Dar al-`Ahd (دار العهد)
Hubungan Empayar Turki Uthmaniyyah dengan negara-negara Kristian yang membayar ufti kepadanya
Dar al-Amn (دار الأمن)
bermaksud (rumah keselamatan) merujuk kepada status Muslim yang tinggal di sesetengah tempat di Dunia Barat.
Dar ad-Dawa (دار الدعوة)
wilayah dimana tempat mula-mula Islam diperkenalkan.
Dar al-Harb (دار الحرب)
bermaksud (rumah peperangan), merujuk kepada kawasan di luar pengaruh pemerintahan Islam; bukan dunia Islam.
Dar al-Islam (دار الإسلام)
wilayah, atau tanah, Islam.
Dar al-Kufr (دار الکفر)
bererti (kaum kafir/kufur), terma perkataan yang asalnya digunakan bagi merujuk kepada wilayah/penempatan orang kafir Quraish-masyarakat yang tidak beriman mengikut lunas dan acuan Islam yang tinggal di Makkah dan sekitarnya. Nabi Muhammad telah berhijrah ke Madinah dan kemudian dalam beberapa tahun telah kembali ke Makkah dalam peristiwa Pembukaan Kota Mekah.
Dar ash-Shahada (دار الشهادة)
Lihat; Dar al-Amn.
Darūd
dirahmati.
Da`wah (الدعوة)
Panggilan kepada Islam. (Lihat juga; aslim taslam)
Darwīš/ Darwish (درویش)
salah satu aliran fahaman Kesufian.
Dhimmi (ذمّی)
"Orang yang dilindungi"; Yahudi dan Kristian (kadang-kala merujuk kepada agama lain[1], seperti Buddha, Sikh, Hindu, dan Majusi), semua agama-agama ini bebas untuk mempraktikkan agama mereka didalam/dibawah wilayah pentadbiran/pemerintahan Islam dan undang-undang Islam (syariah), namun status kebebasan ini tidak boleh dijadikan bahan untuk menjatuhkan dan merosakkan agama dan sosioekonomi, kemasyarakatan dan perundangan Islam.
Dīn (الدین)
landasan kehidupan yang bersandarkan sepenuhnya kepada ajaran dan tuntutan Syariah Islamiah; keluhuran perundangan, tatacara dan praktikal Islam. Dīn juga merujuk kepada kepercayaan dan Agama Islam itu sendiri. (lihat juga: Ad-Din).
Diyya (دیت)
fine for unintentional murder.
Dua (دعاء)
personal prayer, supplication
Dhikr (ذکر)
remembrance of God; Sufi spiritual exercise; Muslims believe that the primary function of prophets is to remind people of God.
Dhuhr (الظهر)
second salat prayer
Dunia (دنیا)
The physical Universe, as opposed to the Hereafter
[sunting]E

Eid (عید)
festival or celebration.
Eid ul-Adha (عید الأضحى)
"the Festival of Sacrifice." The four day celebration starting on the tenth day of Zulhijjah.
Eid ul-Fitr (عید الفطر)
"the Festival of Fitr (Breaking the fast)." A religious festival that marks the end of the fast of Ramadan.
[sunting]F

Fajarah (فجرة)
Wicked evil doers. Plural of "Fajir" (فاجر).
Fajar (فجر)
morning, as in the morning prayer. The time of the day when there is light in the horizon before sunrise.
Falah (فلاح)
success, happiness, well-being
Fanaa (فناء)
Sufi term meaning extinction - to die to this life while alive. Having no existence outside of God. A unity with God; and this is considered a deviation from the righteous path.
Fardu (فرض) plural Fara’id
a religious duty, or an obligatory action: praying 5 times a day is fard Neglecting a fard will result in a punishment in the hereafter. (See wajib)
Fasiq (فاسق)
anyone who has violated Islamic law; usually refers to one whose character has been corrupted (plural "fasiqun").
Fatwa (فتوى)
legal opinion of an (alim) binding on him and on those who follow his taqlid
Fiqh (فقه)
jurisprudence built around the syariah by custom (al-urf). Literally means "deep understanding", refers to understanding the Islamic laws.
Fisabilillah (فی سبیل الله)
on the path of God; common Islamic expression for Jihad. Means for the sake of God (eg. giving in charity for the sake of God)
Fitnah (فتنة)
trial or tribulation; also refers to any period of disorder, such as a civil war, or the period of time before the end of the world or any civil strife.
Fitrah (فطرة)
innate disposition towards virtue, knowledge, and beauty. Muslims believe every child is born with fitrah.
Furqan (فرقان)
the criterion (of right and wrong, true and false); for example, the Qur'an as furqan.
[sunting]G

Ghafara (غفر)
(verb in past tense) to forgive, to cover up (sins). A characteristic of God.
Ghaflah (غفلة)
heedlessness, forgetfulness of God, indifference
Ghaib (غیب)
the unseen, unknown.
Ghusl (غسل)
full ablution of the whole body (see wuduk)
[sunting]H

Hadi (هادی)
a guide, one who guides; A Muslim name for God is The Guide, or Al-Hadi.
Hidaya (هدایة)
guidance from God.
Hadith (حدیث) plural ahādīth
literally "speech"; recorded saying or tradition of the Prophet Muhammad validated by isnad; with sira these comprise the sunnah and reveal shariah
Halal (حلال)
lawful, permitted, good, beneficial, praiseworthy, honourable. (See mustahabb, mandub)
Hafith (حافظ)
someone who knows the Qur'an by heart. Literal translation = memorizer or Protector.
Hajj (الحجّ) or haj
pilgrimage to Mecca. Sunnis regard this as the fifth Pillar of Islam
Hakim(حاکم)
a ruler's or gubernatorial title
Hanif (حنیف)
one of the five prophets; namely, Prophet Adam, Prophet Abraham, Prophet Moses, Prophet Jesus, and Prophet Muhammad. Plural hunafa' (حنفاء).
Haqq (‎حق)
truth, reality, right, righteousness. An Islamic name for God is al-Haqq.
Haraam (حرام)
(stress on final syllable) forbidden. An individual is rewarded for keeping away from haram done out of obedience, (rather than out of fear, shyness or the inability to do it.) Antonym: halal. (See mazur, makrouh)
Haram (حرم)
(stress on initial syllable) sanctuary.
Hasan (حسن)
Good, beautiful, admirable. Also a categorization of a hadith's authenticity as "acceptable". (other categorizations include authenic and fabricated).
Hijab (حجاب)
literally "cover". It describes the self-covering of the body for the purposes of modesty and dignity; broadly, a prescribed system of attitudes and behaviour regarding modesty and dignity. (See al-amira, burnuk, khimar, milfeh, shayla)
Hijra (الهجرة)
Muhammad and his followers' emigration from Mecca to Medina. Literally, "migration".
Hima (حمى)
wilderness reserve, protected forest, grazing commons, important to khalifa
Hizb (حزب)
one half of a juz', or roughly 1/60th of the Qur'an
Houri (حوریة) hūrīya, pl. hūrīyāt (حوریات)
beautiful and pure young men and women, that Muslims believe inhabit Paradise, or Heaven.
Huda (هدى)
guidance
Hudna (هدنة)
Truce. Cease-fire (often temporary)
Hudud (حدود)
Literally, limits or boundaries. Usually refers to limits placed by God on man; penalties of the Islamic law which are described in the Qur'an.
Hujedieh, Hojjatieh
A person who believes that everything must be prepared for the coming of the mahdi, and he will arrive when exploitation and poverty increase, in order to bring justice.
Hukm (حکم)
ruling in the Qur'an or Sunnah
[sunting]I

Ibadah (عبادة)
worship, but not limited to ritual: all expressions of servitude to God, including the pursuit of knowledge, living a pious life, helping, charity, and humility, can be considered ibadah.
Iblis(إبلیس)
a jinn banished to Hell for his arrogance and disobedience; aka Satan : derived from the Greek Diabolos or Devil He is the equivalent of Lucifer.
Iftaar (إفطار)
a light meal eaten by Muslims breaking their fast after sunset.
Ihram (إحرام)
state of consecration for hajj. Includes dress and or prayer.
Ihsan (إحسان)
perfection in worship, such that Muslims try to worship God as if they see Him, and although they cannot see Him, they undoubtedly believe He is constantly watching over them.
Ijaz (إعجاز)
how Muslims describe the character of the Qur'an in both form and content
Ijma (إجماع)
the consensus of either the ummah (or just the ulema) - one of four bases of Islamic Law. More generally, political consensus itself.
Ijtihad (إجتهاد)
During the early times of Islam, the possibility of finding a new solution to a juridical problem. Has not been allowed in conservative Islam since the Middle Ages. However, Liberal movements within Islam generally argue that any Muslim can perform ijtihad, given that Islam has no generally accepted clerical hierarchy or bureaucratic organization. The opposite of ijtihad is taqlid, Arabic for "imitation".
Ilah (إله)
deity, lord, god; not necessarily God.
Ilm (علم)
all varieties of knowledge, usually a synonym for science
Imam (إمام)
literally, leader; e.g. a man who leads a community or leads the prayer; the Shi'a sect use the term only as a title for one of the twelve God-appointed successors of Prophet Muhammad.
Imamah (إمامة) or imamate
successorship of Prophet Muhammad and the leadership of mankind.
Iman (إیمان)
personal faith
Infaq (إنفاق)
the habitual inclination to give rather than take in life; the basis for charity
Injeel (الإنجیل)
Arabic term for the holy book called The Gospel said to have been given to Jesus, who is known as Isa in Arabic; Muslims believe the holy book has been lost and the New Testament gospels (Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John) are not the word of God, only Christian stories about Jesus.
Insha'Allah (إن شاء الله)
God Willing.
Iqamah (إقامة)
the second call to prayer. Similar to the azhan.
`Īsā (عیسى)
Jesus - Isa ibn Maryam (English: Jesus son of Mary), a matronymic (since he had no biological father.
Isha (عشاء)
night; the fifth salat prayer
Islam (الإسلام) (bantuan·maklumat)
"submission to God". The Arabic root word for Islam means submission, obedience, peace, and purity.
Isnad (إسناد)
chain of transmitters of any given hadith
Isra (الإسراء)
the night journey during which Muhammad (محمّد)is said to have visited Heaven. See miraj.
Istislah (إستصلاح)
public interest - a source of Islamic Law.
Istishhaad (إستشهاد)
martyrdom.
Itmaam-i-hujjat (اتمام الحجة)
clarification of truth in its ultimate form.
[sunting]J

Jahannam (جهنم)
the Hell-fire; Hell
Jahiliya (الجاهلیّة)
the time of ignorance before Islam was realized. Describes polytheistic religions.
Jahl (جهل)
ignorance, arrogance
Jamia (جامعة)
"gathering"; i.e. a university, a mosque, or more generally, a community or association.
Janaza (جنازة)
funeral prayer
Jannah (جنة)
Paradise, Heaven, the Garden
Jazakallahu Khayran (جزاک الله خیر)
"May God reward you for the good." Islamic expression of gratitude.
Jihad (جهاد)
struggle. Any earnest striving in the way of God, involving personal, physical, intellectual or military effort, for righteousness and against wrong-doing;
"Lesser Jihad" (الجهاد الأصغر): fighting to protect Islam from attack or oppression. In such fighting, no woman, child or innocent civilian is to be harmed, and no tree is to be cut down. Shi'as believe that only Prophet Muhammad and the twelve Imams had authority to declare positive jihad of the lesser kind. Killing all infidels (military and civilian) in offensive jihad (qitl fee saif fee sybil Allah) is also considered a form of jihad by militant Islamic guerillas in order to carry out the will of Allah to rid the world of fitnah, taghut and kufr.
"Greater Jihad" (الجهاد الأعظم): internal struggle for the soul (nafs) against evil, e.g. Lust, Greed, Envy, etc. Also to thrive to do actions that have great value in islam, and that one has to overcome one's self to do it, e.g.: to overcome the temptation to sleep when it is time to pray the morning prayer is a greater jihad.
Jilbāb (جلباب)
(pl. jalabib) a long, flowing, baggy garment worn by some to fulfill the mandates of sartorial hijab. Some more conservative Muslims believe that jilbāb is incumbent upon Muslim women to wear this as a sign of modesty. (See abaya. burka, chador)
Jinn (جنّ)
An invisible being of fire
Jizya (جزیة)
A tax specified in the Koran (9:29) to be paid by non-Muslim males living under Muslim political control.
Jumuah (جمعة)
Friday prayer
Juz' (جزء)
one of thirty parts of the Qur'an
[sunting]K

Ka'bah (الکعبة)
cube-house; the cube-shaped building i.e in Mecca toward which Muslims pray. Muslims, however, do not worship it, nor pray to it. Muslims only pray to Almighty God.
Kafir (کافر)
from the word kafara - "to hide." Those who deliberately hide the truth; unbelievers, truth-concealers; one who is ungrateful. Plural: Kaffirun.
Kalam (علم الکلم)
Islamic theology
Khalifa (خلیفة)
Caliph, more generally, one performing the duties of khilafa.
Khatib (خاطب)
the speaker at the Friday Muslim prayer, or Jumu'ah prayer
Khilafah (خلافة)
Man's trusteeship and stewardship of Earth; Most basic theory of the Caliphate; Flora and fauna as sacred trust; Accountability to God for harms to nature, failure to actively care and maintain. Three specific ways in which khalifa is manifested in Muslim practice are the creation of haram to protect water, hima to protect other species (including those useful to man), and by resisting infidel domination over Muslim lands, in jihad.
Kharaj (خراج)
a land tax
Khums (خمس)
a Shi'a article of faith that refers to a one-fifth tax, divided between Sehme Sadaat, a poor sayyid, and Sehme Imam, given to a Mujtahid
Khutbah (خطبة)
the sermon at Jumu'ah prayer
Kitab (کتاب)
book; The Qur'an is often referred to as "Al-Kitab" (The Book)
Kufr (کفر)
In Arabic - ungratefulness and disbelief. Islamically speaking, disbelief in God and denial of the truth.
Kun (کن)
"Be!" God's command to the universe, 'Be!' and it is.
[sunting]L

Laghw (لغو)
Dirty, false, evil vain talk
La ilaha illallah (لاإله إلا الله)
"There is no God worthy of worship except Allah." The most important expression in Islam. It is part of the first pillar of Islam.
la'nat (لعنة)
curse
Laylat al-Qadr (لیلة القدر)
the Night of Power, towards the end of Ramadan, when Muhammad received the first revelation of the Qur'an.
[sunting]M

Madhab (مذهب)
(pl. Madhahib) school of religious jurisprudence, school of thought
Madrasa (مدرسة)
school, university
Maghrib (مغرب)
the fourth daily salat prayer
Mahdi (مهدی)
"a guide". More specifically al-Mahdi (the guide) is a figure who will appear with Prophet Jesus before the end of time, when God allows it, to bring world peace, order and justice, after it has been overcome with injustice and aggression. The Shi'ah regard the twelfth Imam as Imam Mahdi who was hidden in a cave when he was 5 years old ghabat and will reappear zuhur. The Sunnis regard someone else as the Mahdi.
Mahram (محرم)
a relative of the opposite gender usually described as being "within the forbidden limits"; a better description is "within the protected limits". means relatives who one can appear before without observing hijab and who one cannot marry.
Makrouh
Means "detested", though not haraam (forbidden); something that is disliked or offensive. There is no sin and no punishment if a person commits the Makruh, but it is blameworthy.
Malaikah (ملائکة)
angels
Ma malakat aymanukum (ما ملکت أیمانکم)
one's rightful spouse (literally: what your right hands possess)
Mandub
commendable or recommended. (See halal mustahabb)
Manzil (منزل)
one of seven parts of the Qur'an
Ma'ruf (معروف)
consensus of the community
Maqasid (مقصد)
goals or purposes; such as the purposes of Islamic law
Masha Allah (ما شاء الله)
God has willed it.
Masih (مسیح)
the (Biblical) Messiah, Jesus Christ.
Masjid (مسجد)
place of prayer; mosque
Ma'sum (معصوم), plural Ma'sumin (معصومین)
literally, innocent or free of sin; children are considered masum. Can also refer to an adult individual who does not commit sins, does not make mistakes, does not forget, etc. although he/she does have the choice to commit sins. The Shi'as regard the Prophet Muhammad, his daughter Fatimah, and the twelve Imams to be the fourteen Masumin. Finally assumed as a title for an 'infallible leader sent by God', notably by the Almohads' founding Mahdi and Imam.
Maulana (مولانا)
an Arabic word literally meaning "our lord" or "our master". It is used mostly as a title preceding the name of a respected religious leader, in particular graduates of religious institutions. The term is sometimes used to refer to Rumi.
Maulvi (مولوی)
an honorific Islamic religious title often, but not exclusively, given to Muslim religious scholars or Ulema preceding their names. Maulvi generally means any religious cleric or teacher.
Me'ad (معاد)
the Resurrection; God will resurrect all of humankind to be judged. Shi'as regard this as the fifth Pillar of Islam.
Mecca (مکّة)
the holiest city in Islam
Medina (مدینة)
"city"; Medinat-un-Nabi means "the City of the Prophet." See hijrah.
Mihrab (محراب)
a niche in the wall of all mosques, indicating the direction of prayer
Minaret (منارة)
a tower built onto a mosque from the top of which the call to prayer is made
Minbar (منبر)
a pulpit in the mosque where the Imam stands to deliver sermons
Minhaj (منهج)
methodology, e.g. methods, rules, system, procedures.
Miraj (المعراج)
the Ascension to the Seven Heavens during the Night Journey See also: isra
Mu'awwidhatayn (المعوذتین)
suras Al-Falaq and an-Nas, the "Surahs of refuge", should be said to relieve suffering (also protect from Black Magic)
Mubah (مباح)
literally permissible; neither forbidden nor commended. Neutral. (See halal)
Mufti (مفتى)
an Islamic scholar who is an interpreter or expounder of Islamic law (Sharia), capable of issuing fataawa (plural of "fatwa").
Mubaligh (مبلغ)
person who recites Qur'an
Muhajabah (محجبة)
woman who wears hijab (polite form of hijabi).
Muhammadun rasulullah
"Muhammad is the messenger of God." This statement is the second part of the first pillar of Islam. This is the second most important statement in Islam.
Muezzin (مأذن)
a person who performs the call to prayer
Mufsidun (مفسدون)
a person who wages jihad not in accordance with the Qur'an. Plural mufsideen.
Muhajireen (مهاجرون)
The first Muslims that traveled to Medina.
Mujahid (مجاهد)
a fighter for Islam. Plural mujahideen.
Mujtahid(مجتهد)
a scholar who uses reason for the purpose of forming an opinion or making a ruling on a religious issue. Plural: Mujtahidun.
Mullah (ملا)
are Islamic clergy. Ideally, they should have studied the Qur'an, Islamic traditions (hadith), and Islamic law (fiqh).
Mu'min (مأمن)
believer
Munafiq (منفق)
hypocrite. Plural: Munafiqun
Munaqabah (منقبة) pl. munaqabāt (منقبات)
woman who wears niqab
Murshid (مرشد)
a Sufi teacher
Murtadd (مرتد)
apostate
Muslim (مسلم)
a follower of the religion of Islam.
Mustahabb (مستباح)
commendable or recommended. (See halal, mandub)
Mut'ah (متعه)
joy; a type of marriage practiced only by the shiites; or a practice between Umrah and Hajj.
Mutawatir (متواتر)
"agreed upon"--used to describe hadith that were narrated by many witnesses through different narration chains (isnads) leading back to Muhammad
[sunting]N

Nabi (نبی)
literally, prophet. In the Islamic context, a Nabi is a man sent by God to give guidance to man, but not given scripture. The Prophet Abraham was a Nabi. This is in contrast to Rasul, or Messenger. Plural: Anbiya. See: Rasul.
Nafs (النفس)
soul, one's self
Najaasah
Impurity
Nakir and Munkar
two malaikah who test the faith of the dead in their graves
Nifaq
falsehood; dishonesty
Niqab (نقاب)
veil covering the face
Naseeha
advice
Nass (نصّ)
a known, clear legal injunction
Nubuwwah (نبوّة)
prophethood. Shi'as regard this as the third Pillar of Islam.
Noor
light. Muslims believe angels were created from light.
[sunting]P

Prophet
A person claiming to have had messages from Allah. (see nabi).
[sunting]Q

Qadar
destiny
Qadi (قاضی)
judge of Islamic Law
Qiblah
the direction Muslims face during prayer
Qiyamah
resurrection; return of the dead for the Day of Judgment
Qisas (قصاص)
fine for intentional murder if heirs forgive
Qiyas (القیاس)
analogy - foundation of legal reasoning and thus fiqh
Qutba
sermon given by the imam in a mosque
Qudsi
classification of a hadith that are believed to be narrated by Muhammad from God.
Qur'an (القرآن)
Muslims believe that the Qur'an is the literal word of God and culmination of God's revelation to mankind, revealed to Prophet Muhammad in the year 610 A.D.
[sunting]R

Rabb
Lord, Sustainer, Cherisher, Master.
Rahman
Merciful; Ar-Rahman means "The Most Merciful"
Rahim
compassionate; Ar-Rahim means "The Most Compassionate" as in the Basmala
Rajm
the practice of stoning
Rakaat
one unit of Islamic prayer, or Salat. Each daily prayer is made up of a different number of rakaat.
Rasul
messenger; Unlike prophets (Nabi), messengers are given scripture. Moses, David, Jesus and Mohammed are considered messengers. All messengers are considered prophets, but not all prophets are given scripture. See: Nabi.
Riba (ربا)
interest, the charging and paying of which is forbidden by the Qur'an
Risalah
literally, message or letter. Used both in common parlance for mail correspondences, and in religious context as divine message.
Ruh
spirit; the divine breath which God blew into the clay of Adam.
Rukn plural arkan
means what is inevitable. One of the five pillars of Islam. (See fard, wajib)
Ruk'u
the bowing performed during Muslim prayer
[sunting]S

Sabr
patience, endurance, self-restraint
Sadaqah
charity; voluntary alms
Sahabah
companions of Muhammad. In Islam, the Sahāba (الصحابه) were the companions of the Prophet Muhammad. This form is plural; the singular is Sahābi, which is Arabic for "friend, companion." A list of the best-known Companions can be found at List of companions of Muhammad.
Sahih
"Sound in isnad." A technical attribute applied to the "isnad" of a hadith.
Sajda
prostration
Salaf (السلف الصالح)
(righteous) predecessors/ancestors. In Islam, Salaf is generally used to refer to the first three generations of Muslims.
Salah (صلاة) or salat
any one of the 5 daily obligatory prayers. Sunnis regard this as the second Pillar of Islam
Salaam (سلام)
peace
Salat (صلاة)
prayer
Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam (صلى الله علیه و سلم)
"May God bless him and grant him peace." Expression used after stating Prophet Muhammad's name. Abbreviated as (saw)
Samad
eternal, absolute; Muslims believe God is "The Eternal."
Salsabil
a river in heaven (al-firdaus)
Sawm (صَوم)
fasting during the month of Ramadhan. The word sawm is derived from Syriac sawmo.
Sayyid (سیّد)
a descendant of a relative (because all his sons Qasim, Abdullah, and Ibraheem (Abraham) died before having children) to Muhammad
Sema
refer to some of the ceremonies used by various sufi orders
Shahadah (الشهادة)
The expression of faith: La ilaha illa Allah. Muhammadun rasulullah. ("There is no god but Allah. Muhammad is the messenger of Allah."). Sunnis regard this as the first Pillar of Islam
Shahid (شهید)
witness, martyr. Usually refers to a person killed whilst fighting in "jihad fee sybil Allah" (jihad for the sake of Allah). Often used in modern times for deaths in a political cause (including victims of soldiers, deaths in battle, suicide bombers, etc.) which are viewed by some Muslims as a spiritual cause not just a political cause. But the real meaning of Jihad is, to defends Islam in any matter way. It can be in economic way as long its trying to protect Islam.
Shaikh (شیخ)
a spiritual master, Muslim clergy
Sharia/shariah (الشریعة)
"the path to a watering hole"; the eternal ethical code and moral code based on the Qur'an and Sunnah; basis of fiqh
Sharif (شریف)
a title bestowed upon the descendants of Muhammad through Hasan, son of his daughter Fatima Zahra and son-in-law Ali ibn Abi Talib
Shaytan
Satan, the Devil; also known as Iblis
Shi'a (الشیعة)
a follower of Prophet Muhammad and his successors (the twelve Imams), the first being Ali. Shi'as constitute the second largest sect in Islam.
Shirk (شرک)
idolatry; polytheism; the sin of believing in any divinity except God and of associating other gods with God.
Shura (شورى)
consultation
majlis ash-shura (مجلس الشورى)
advisory council
Sira (السیرة)
life or biography of the Prophet Muhammad; his moral example - with hadith this comprises the sunnah
Sirat al-Mustaqim
the Straight Path
Subhanahu wa ta'ala
expression used following written name or vocalization of Allah in Arabic
Subhan'allah
expression used by Muslims to express strong feelings of joy or relief.
Sufi (صوفی)
a Muslim mystic; See: Sufism (tasawwuf).
Suhoor
the meal eaten by fasting Muslims just before dawn.
Sunnah (السنّة) or sunnah al-Nabi (سنّة النبی)
the "path" or "example" of the Prophet Muhammad, i.e., what the Prophet did or said or agreed to during his life. He is considered by Muslims to be the best human moral example, the best man to follow.
Sunni (سنّی)
the largest sect in Islam.
Surah (سورة)
chapter; the Qur'an is comprised of 114 suras
[sunting]T

Taba'een
followers of the Sahabah
Tafsir (تفسیر)
exegesis, particularly such commentary on the Qur'an
Taghut
impurity; anything worshipped other than God, i.e. all the false deities.
Tahajjud
optional, late night prayer
Taharah
purification from ritual impurities by means of wudu or ghusl
Tahir
pure, ritually clean
Tahrif (تحریف)
corruption, forgery. Muslims believe the Bible Scriptures were corrupted but the Qur'an is in its original form.
Tajdid
to purify and reform society in order to move it toward greater equity and justice
Tajwid (تجوید)
a special manner of reciting the Qur'an according to prescribed rules of pronunciation and intonation.
Takbir
a proclamation of the greatness of God; a Muslim invocation.
Takfeer
to declare kufr (disbelief) about a non-Muslim or Muslim or to denounce them as disbelievers.
Taqlid (تقلید)
to blindly follow a person whose following is not based on proof and does not rely upon knowledge.
Taqiyya (تقیّة)
the mostly Shi'a principle that one is allowed to hide one's true beliefs in certain circumstances.
Taqwa
righteousness; goodness
Tarawih
tarawih prayers are extra prayers in Ramadan after the Isha prayer.
Tarkib (تَرْکِیب)
the study of Arabic grammar issued from the Qur'an
Tariqa (طریقة)
a Muslim religious order, particularly a Sufi order
Tartil (ترتیل)
slow and measured (meditative) recitation of the Qur'an
Tashkil (تشکیل)
vocalization of a text, for example the Qur'an
Taslim (تسلم)
salutation at the end of prayer
Tawbah
repentance
Tasawwuf (التصوّف) or Sufism
Tawaf
circumambulating the Ka'bah during Hajj.
Tawheed (توحید)
monotheism; affirmation of the Oneness of God. Muslims regard this as the first part of the Pillar of Islam, the second part is accepting Muhammad as Messenger. The opposite of Tawheed is shirk
Tawrat
the revelation to Musa
Tayyib
all that is good as regards things, deeds, beliefs, persons, foods, etc. Means "pure." The Shahaddath is tayyib.
Tazkiyah
Purification of the Soul.
[sunting]U

Ulema (علماء) or ulama
the leaders of Islamic society, including teachers, Imams and judges. Singular alim.
Ummah (الاُمّة) or umma
the global community of all Muslim believers; international personhood of Islam
Umrah
the lesser pilgrimage performed in Mecca. Unlike hajj, umrah can be performed throughout the year.
Urf (عرف)
custom of a given society, leading to change in the fiqh
Usul al-Fiqh
the study of the origins and practice of Islamic jurisprudence (fiqh)
[sunting]W

Wahdat al-wujud (وحدة الوجود)
"unity of being". Philosophical term used by some Sufis. Related to fanaa
Wahy
revelation or inspiration of God to His prophets for all humankind
Wajib
obligatory or mandatory see fard
Wali
friend, protector, guardian, supporter, helper
Warraq (ورّاق)
traditional scribe, publisher, printer, notary and book copier
Wasat
the middle way, justly balanced, avoiding extremes, moderation
Witr
a voluntary, optional night prayer of three rakaat
Wudu
ablution for ritual purification from minor impurities before salat (see ghusl)
[sunting]Y

Ya Allah
Yaqin
certainty, that which is certain
Yaum Al-Qiyâmah (یوم القیامة)
"Day of the Resurrection"; Day of Judgement
[sunting]Z

Zabur
Psalm didedahkan kepada Nabi Daud
Zaidi
mazhab Islam Yemen dengan kemiripan dengan Syiah dan Sunah Waljamaah
Zakat (زکاة)
cukai, derma, tithe sebagai suatu tugas orang Islam; Ahli Sunah Waljamaah menganggap ini sebagai Rukun Islam keempat. Tidak pun kemurahan mahupun tiba dari perekonomian Islam, tetapi suatu tugas keagamaan dan kewajipan sosial.
Zalimun
ahli politeisme, pembuat salah, dan tidak adil.
Zina (زناء , زنى)
aktiviti seksual di luar nikah
[sunting]Catatan

Wikipedia bukan sebuah kamus bahasa Arab-ke-Inggeris umum. Senarai di atas termasuk hanya konsep secara mencukupi khusus pada Islam atau budaya Islam untuk merit rencana penuh sendiri mereka. Ada sebuah kamus Inggeris/Arab di Wiktionary.
Kata-kata Arab dicipta dari three-letter "roots" yang mengirimkan suatu gagasan asas. Contohnya, k-t-b menyampaikan gagasan penulisan. Tambahan huruf-hufur lain terdahulunya, di perantaraan, dan selepas huruf-huruf akar menghasilkan banyak kata-kata berkaitan: bukan hanya "menulis" tetapu juga "buku", "pejabat", "perpustakaan", dan "pengarang". Akar abstrak berkonsonan untuk Islam adalah s-l-m.
[sunting]Rujukan

Suzanne Haneef, What Everyone Should Know about Islam and Muslims, Penerbitan Kazi, Chicago – salah satu pengenalan yang popular
Muzaffar Haleem, The Sun is Rising In the West, Penerbitan Amana, Beltsville, MD 1999
Ziauddin Sardar, Muhammad for Beginners, Icon Books, 1994 – sudut pandangan Sufisme yang amat moden
Hans Wehr, A Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic (Perkhidmatan Bahasa Pertuturan, Ithaca, NY, 1976). Disunting oleh J. Milton Cowan. ISBN 0-87950-001-8.
↑ http://www.usc.edu/dept/MSA/fundamentals/hadithsunnah/bukhari/053.sbt.html#004.053.384
[sunting]Lihat juga

99 Nama Allah (Asma al Husna)
Eskatologi Islam
Nabi-nabi Islam
Senarai istilah Kristian dalam bahasa Arab
Daftar kata serapan dari bahasa Arab dalam bahasa Melayu
[sunting]Pautan luar

Kamus Bersuara Kata-kata Kunci Islam dan Arab
Untuk lebih terperinci berkenaan dengan topik ini, sila lihat [ {{{1}}} ].
Kategori: AqidahPerkataan ArabGlosari IslamSenarai topik IslamIslam

قس فرانسه

Voici une liste de termes arabes que l'on rencontre dans l'islam. Ils sont parfois difficilement traduisibles et les traductions sont parfois moins précises que le terme en arabe.
Quelques termes sont passés de l'arabe au turc avant de passer au français, quelques rares termes sont même d'origine turque. Ils sont dans une deuxième liste parfois en redondance avec la liste des termes venant de l'arabe.
Sommaire : Haut - A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
Les termes français[modifier]

Le nom de ses prophètes[modifier]
Le nom du dernier prophète de l'islam se dit Muhammad (محمد) en arabe, devenant, selon la variante parlée, Mohammad ou Moham(m)ed. C'est aussi une version utilisée dans les recherches scientifiques et celle préférée par les arabophones.
On trouve cependant en français d'autres dénominations plus récentes :
Mahom ou Mahon (xie siècle) ;
Mahomet (xvie siècle, xviie siècle).
Les musulmans refusent cette dénomination, argumentant que « Mahomet » dériverait de ma houmida, qui signifierait explicitement « celui qui n'a pas été loué» (alors que Muhammad signifie au contraire « le loué »). Il est dérivé de la forme latine que l'on retrouve au xiiie siècle chez des auteurs comme Raymond Lulle1, et plus d'un siècle avant dans la traduction du Coran faite en latin pour l'abbé de Cluny et théologien Pierre le Vénérable. C'est pourquoi elle est commune à d'autres langues européennes comme l'anglais traditionnel, et proche des versions des autres langues romanes : Mahoma en espagnol, Maomé en portugais, Maometto en italien, Mahomed en roumain (voir Le nom propre Mahomet dans la langue française).

[afficher]
v · d · m Prophètes de l’islam dans le Coran

Le Coran[modifier]
Au xve siècle, on dit Alcoran. La première traduction du Coran en français par André Du Ryer est intitulée L'Alcoran de Mahomet. Les traducteurs suivants Claude-Étienne Savary en 1783 et Albin de Kazimirski Biberstein en 1847, intitulent leur traduction Le Koran. Le Littré, en 1872, remarque : « on dit aussi le Coran, et sans doute mieux, puisque al est l'article arabe et signifie le, ce qui fait avec notre article, une sorte de double emploi ; mais Alcoran est consacré par l'usage, et Coran, bien que recommandé par les orientalistes, ne peut pas le bannir. » Le mot Coran s'impose au xixe siècle et a complètement remplacé Alcoran dans l’usage courant.
Quran ou Qur’ān sont les transcriptions données par les ouvrages didactiques suivant de plus ou moins près la transcription arabe traditionnelle.
La religion[modifier]
La religion musulmane est nommée de façon variable en français : musulmanisme au xviie siècle encore référencé dans un dictionnaire de 1845 ou le Littré de 1872, alors qualifié d'archaïque et qui n'a pas été survécu. Voltaire, au xviiie siècle, utilise mahométanisme ou mahométisme (« religion caractérisée essentiellement par un sévère monothéisme ») mais aussi islamisme (« la religion de Mahomet »), terme qualifié alors d'archaïque. Diderot, toujours au xviiie siècle, définit islam comme « la religion des musulmans ».
Le xxe siècle ajoute islamisme pour qualifier le versant politique d'une religion souvent imbriquée dans la structure du pouvoir. Le terme est attesté en français depuis le xviiie siècle, où Voltaire utilise le terme pour remplacer « mahométisme ».
Les fidèles[modifier]
Diderot, au xviiie siècle, utilise islamite (« qui professe l'islam ») terme largement inusité de nos jours. Islamiste apparait dans les années 1980 : le mot n’existe pas dans le Grand Robert de 1976. Il est utilisé uniquement pour désigner un adepte d’une idéologie appelée, dans ce contexte, islamisme.
Substantivement ou adjectivalement, sarrasin existe depuis le xie siècle mais fait, de nos jours, plus référence à l’ethnie qu’à la religion ; mahométan est attesté au xvie siècle avec le sens de « celui qui professe la religion de Mahomet » ; musulman est défini par Voltaire, au xviiie siècle comme « nom que les mahométans se donnent » ; alcoraniste, dans un dictionnaire de 1845, dérivé de Alcoran n'a pas eu de suite.
L'adjectif islamique est défini par Diderot, au xviiie siècle, comme « qui appartient à l'islamisme » lequel terme était alors, on l'a vu, synonyme de islam.
Le lieu de prière[modifier]
Ronsard, au xvie siècle, utilise mosquette, en emprunt à l'italien mosche(t)a. Mosquée est en usage dès le xvie siècle avec l'orthographe mosquez. Un dictionnaire de 1845 signale mahomerie ou mahométie soulignant, cependant, que ce sont deux mots peu usités.
Remarques[modifier]
Sarrasin est passé de mode sauf dans les ouvrages traitant du Moyen Âge. Les dérivés de Mahomet deviennent de plus en plus vieillis.
Bien qu'islam et musulman dérivent tous deux de la même racine arabe SLM (سَلِمَ salima, « être sain, aller bien »), la langue française a deux séries de dérivés :
musulman / islamique : comme dans « art musulman » : « art islamique »,
musulman / islamite sont synonymes chez Diderot (xviiie siècle),
musulman / islamiste : deux mots utilisés de manière antagoniste.
Pour un francophone, le mot islamiste est immédiatement mis en rapport avec l'islam politique et comporte une connotation négative. Le mot musulman est plus neutre.
Liste de termes venant de l'arabe[modifier]

Les termes suivants sont d'abord donnés dans la transcription conventionnelle de l'alphabet arabe puis, entre parenthèses, dans une transcription plus proche des usages propres au français (si le mot existe directement en français, il est indiqué à la suite) et enfin en arabe vocalisé le plus complet possible).
A[modifier]

ʿAbd, ʿabd (abd) عَبْد : serviteur; esclave; adorateur; entre dans de nombreux noms composés.
Ablution, ġusl (ghusl, grande ablution) غُسْل et wuḍū' (wudhû', petite ablution) وُضوء ;
Abrogé, mansūḫ (mansûkh) مَنْسوخ : un verset abrogé est corrigé par un verset postérieur dit abrogatif ;
Abrogeant, nāsiḫ (nâsikh) ناسِخ : verset abrogatif corrigeant un verset abrogé ;
Abû, abū (Père, abou) أَبو : père, intervient dans la kun'ya (surnom) de nombreux noms arabes ;
Achoura, ʿāšūrā' (achoura) عاشوراء : le dix du mois de muharram. Journée de jeûne de l'islam calquée sur le jeûne juif de Yom Kippour, au dixième jour du septième mois. Le chiisme y ajoute la commémoration du massacre de l'imam Husayn.
Adab, ʾadab (ʾadab) أَدَب : belles lettres, politesse, courtoisie ;
'Adala , 'adala العدالة : Probité morale, rectitude, droiture ;
Adh-Dharoura , adh-dharoura الضرورة : Nécessité, Se dit de quelque chose qui est nécessaire ;
Adhan, ʾaḏān (’adhân) أذان : appel à la prière ;
ʿAdl, ʿadl (‘adl) عدل : justice ;
Ahl al-Bayt, ahl al-bayt (Ahl al-Bayt) أهل البیت (ahl : peuple, gens; bayt : maison) : les gens de la maison, membres de la famille de Mahomet.
Ahl al-Kitâb, ahl al-kitāb (gens du livre) أهل الکتاب (ahl : peuple, gens; al-kitāb : livre) : fidèles des religions monothéistes préislamiques : juifs, chrétiens ;
Ahl at-Taqwa, ahl at-taqwa (Ahl at-taqwa) أهل التقوى (ahl : peuple, gens; taqwa : piété) : les gens de la piété.
ʾAhzâb voir Hizb ;
Aïd, aʿīd (aïd) عِید : fête ;
Aïd el-Adha, ʿīd al-ʾaḍḥā, (fête du sacrifice) عید الإضحى : synonyme de Aïd el-Kebir ;
Aïd el-Kebir, ʿīd al-kabīr, (grande fête) عید الکبیر : Fête qui rappelle le sacrifice d'Abraham et qui marque la fin du pèlerinage (hajj) ;
Aïd el-Fitr, ʿīd al-fiṭr, (fête de la rupture) عید الفطر : fête la rupture du jeûne du mois de ramadan ;
Aïd es-Seghir, ʿīd aṣ-ṣaḡīr, (la petite fête) عید الصغیر : synonyme de Aïd el-Fitr ;
Akh, āḫ الأخ singulier de Ikhwan الإخوان : frère (en islam) ;
Akhira, ʾāḫiraʰ (dernière) آخرة : la dernière destination, l'au-delà en opposition avec ici-bas (dunyâ) ;
Akhlaq, āḫlaq أخلاق : Règles morales et pratiques morales, caractère d'une personne ;
ʿAlim عالِم, voir Ouléma ;
Allah, ʾAllāh (’Allâh, Allah) الله, اللّه ou اللّٰه : Dieu. Le terme est employé aussi par les chrétiens de langue arabe ;
'Amal, 'amal عمل : Actions, comportement ;
Amân, ʾamān, أمان : acte de clémence, saufconduit ;
Ansar, ʾanṣār (ansâr) أنصار : partisan, auxiliaire, désigne les compagnons de Mahomet originaires de Médine pour les distinguer des muhâjirûn s'étant expatriés de La Mecque pour le rejoindre ;
ʿAqîda, ʿaqīda (dogme) ﻋﻘﻴﺪة singulier de 'aqaîd عقائد : article de foi ; doctrine ; croyance ;
Arbayn, ʾarbaʿīn, أربعین, de ʾarbaʿūna (quarante), أربعون : fête chiite de la fin du deuil, 40 jours après l'Achoura ;
As-Salam Alaykum, as-salām ʿalaykum السلام علیکم : littéralement « Que la paix soit sur vous ». La réponse à ce salut est wa ʿalaykum as-salām, ﻭ علیک السلام : « Et que sur vous soit la paix » ;
Astaghfir Allah, ʿastaḡfir allāh أستغفر الله : « Que Dieu me pardonne » ;
ʾAʿudhu bi-llah, ʾaʿūḏu bi-llāh أعوذ بالله : « Je cherche la protection d'Allah ! » ;
At-Ta'a, at-ta'a الطاعة : Obéissance (en vu d'apporter le bien-être) ;
Au-delà, voir Akhira ou Maʿâd
ʾAwliyaʾ, ʾawlīaʾ, أولیاء pluriel de Walîy ;
Awra, ʿawra (ʿawra) عورة : Les parties du corps qui ne peuvent être dévoilées qu'à la famille.
Aya, ʾāya (âya, signe) آیة pl. ʾāyāt (âyat, signes) آیات : signes, miracles, puis par extension verset(s) du Coran ;
Ayatollah, ʾāya allāh (Ayatollah) آیة الله : signe de Dieu ; titre des religieux chiites du plus haut rang ;
ʿAzl, ʿazl (coït interrompu, coitus interruptus) عزل : le fait d'interrompre l'acte sexuel avant l'éjaculation ;
B[modifier]

Balad, balad (bled) بلد : cîté ; bled ; campagne2;
Banû, banū (pl.) (descendants de) بنو: dynastie ; tribu. Exemple : al-umawīun الأمویون ou banū umaīya بنو أمیة : les Omeyyades ; la dynastie omeyyade. Devient banī بنی en position de complément de nom ou d’objet.
Baraka, baraka (baraka ; bénédiction) برکة : bénédiction (divine) ;
Barzakh, barzaḫ برزخ : intervalle ; séparation ; (géogr.) isthme. Passage du défunt du monde des mortels à l’au-delà.
Bachar, bašar (humanité) بشر : le genre humain ; l’humanité
Basîra, baṣīra (discernement) بصیرة : discernement ; perspicacité ; dans le soufisme la capacité de percevoir la vérité transcendante.
Batin, bāṭin (ésotérique) باطِن : occulte; secret; ésotérique. Terme de soufisme en opposition avec exotérisme (zâhir) ;
Bayt Allâh, bayt allāh (mosquée) بیت الله : maison de Dieu ; mosquée ;
Ben, bin (fils de) بن: fils de dans les filiation dérive de ibn ابن: fils. ;
Bidʿa, bidʿa (hérésie) بدعه : innovation ; idée nouvelle considérée comme une hérésie ;
Bint, bint (fille de) بنت: fille de dans les filiation dérive de ibna ابنة: fille. ;
Bismillah ar-Rahmân ar-Rahîm, abrégé en Bismillah / Basmala, bi-smi-llāhi r-raḥmāni -r-raḥīmi بسم الله الرحمن الرحیم: Au nom de Dieu le tout miséricordieux, le très miséricordieux ;
Bayʿa, bayʿa (allégeance) بیعة: serment d’allégeance ;
C[modifier]

Calame, voir Qalam ;
Calife, ḫalīfaʰ (calife, khalife) خَلِیفَة : successeur de Mahomet, dirigeant de l'oumma ;
Califat, ḫilāfa (khalifat ; califat) خلافة : califat ;
Cha`abân, šaʿabān شعبان : nom du huitième mois du calendrier musulman.
Chafʿ, šafʿ (pair) شفع : prière surrérogatoire comportant un nombre pair de prosternations célébrée après la prière canonique de Isha cette prière est suivie de la prière de Witr ;
Chahada, šahādaʰ (profession de foi) شَهَادَة : témoignage, profession de foi (un des cinq piliers de l'islam) ;
Chahid, šahīd (martyr) شَهید : témoin ; martyr. Un chahid est considéré comme vivant auprès d’Allah, c'est pour cela que les musulmans n'accomplissent pas la prière de funérailles pour un chahid;
Chari`a, šarīʿaʰ (charî‘a, charia) شَرِیعَة : chemin, voie, loi, code juridique traditionnel des sociétés musulmanes ;
Chawwal, šawwāl شوّال : nom du dixième mois du calendrier musulman marqué par l'Aïd el-Fitr le premier jour de ce mois ;
Chaytân voir Satan ;
Cheikh, šayḫ (chaïkh, cheikh ou cheik) شَیْخ : ancien, chef ;
Chérif, šarīf (chérif) شریف : descendant de Mahomet ;
Chirk, širk (chirk, polythéisme) شرک : association ; polythéisme. Le chirk c’est le fait d’accorder à un autre qu’Allah ce qui revient à Allah. Exemple : croire en un voyant est considéré comme chirk. Le chirk est le plus grand péché en Islam.
Chiisme, šīʿaʰ (chî‘a, chiite, chiisme) شِیعَة : le courant chiite (littéralement : « disciple ; partisan ») ;
Choura, šūrā (concertation) شُورَى : concertation, prise de décision en commun ;
Coran, qurʾān (lecture) قرآن : lecture ; récitation ;
Chu`ûbiya, voir Shu`ubiya ;
D[modifier]

Daʿiyat, dāʿiyat (dâ'iyat) داعیة : prêcheur de l'islam
Dajjal, dajjāl (antéchrist) دجّال : menteur ; celui qui sème la discorde ;
Dhabiha, ḏabīḥa, (sacrifice ; offrande) ذبیحة : le sacrifice, l'animal destiné à être égorgé, par métonymie, l'égorgement rituel ;
Dhallal, ḍallāl (égarement) ضلال : égarement ;
Dar al-ʿAhd, dar al-ʿahd (domaine de la trêve) دار العهد : fut inventé pour décrire la relation de l'Empire ottoman avec ses provinces chrétiennes tributaires ;
Dar al-Amn, dar al-amn (domaine de la sûreté) دار الأمن : terme proposé par des philosophes musulmans occidentaux pour décrire le statut musulman en Occident ;
Dar al-Dawa, dar ad-daʿwa (domaine de l'invitation) دار الدعوة : terme utilisé pour désigner une région où l’islam est entrée récemment. L'utilisation la plus fréquente de ce terme désigne l'Arabie avant et pendant la vie de Mahomet.
Dar al-Harb, dar al-ḥarb (domaine de la guerre) دار الحرب : littéralement « maison de la guerre », désigne les territoires qui ne sont pas islamisés, par opposition avec Dar al-Islam, la « Maison de la soumission. Les habitants du Dar al-Harb sont appelés harbi.
Dar al-Islam, dar al-islām (domaine islamisé) دار الإسلام : littéralement « Maison de la soumission » par opposition Dar al-Harb, la «Maison de la guerre» ;
Dar al-Kufr, dar al-kufr (domaine de l'incroyance ) دار الکفر : terme utilisé par Mahomet pour désigner la société de La Mecque dominé par les Quraychites entre son exil à Médine et son retour triomphant. Est ultérieurement devenu synonyme de Dar al-Harb, ;
Dar ach-Chahâda, dar aš-šahāda (domaine du témoignage) دار الشهادة : est le terme proposé par les philosophes musulmans occidentaux pour décrire le statut des musulmans dans le monde occidental.
Daʿwa, daʿwa (invitation à la foi) دَعْوة : vocation ; profession de foi; invitation à la foi menée par des dâʿi ;
Derviche, darwīš (derviche) دَرویش : vient du persan derwiš درویش (mendiant) : membre de certaines confréries soufies ; Peut être rapproché du mot arabe fakir, signifiant « pauvre » ;
Dhikr, ḏikr (invocation) ذِکْر : invocation; répétition (du nom de Dieu) ;
Dhimmi, ḏimmī (dhimmî) ذمّی : membre d'une religion du livre, qui n'est pas admis à combattre avec les croyants, et acquitte un impôt spécial pour se « racheter » de ne pas être musulman ;
Dhû'l-Fikar, ḏū l-fikar (celle qui à une épine) ذو الفقار : nom de l'épée à deux pointes que Mahomet a donné à `Ali lors de la bataille de Uhud :
Dhû'l-Hijja, ḏū l-ḥijja (mois du pèlerinage) ذو الحجة : nom du dernier mois du calendrier musulman, mois sacré du grand pèlerinage.
Dhû'l-Kifl, ḏū l-kifl (celui qui à une part double) ذو الکفل : prophète, cité dans le Coran3 identifié au prophète biblique Ézéchiel ;
Dhû'l-Qaʿda, ḏū l-qaʿda (mois de ??) ذو القعدة : nom du onzième mois du calendrier musulman.
Dhû'l-Qarnâʾ, ḏū l-qarnā'an (celui qui a deux cornes) ذو القرناء : personnage cité dans le Coran4 souvent identifié à Alexandre le Grand ;
Dhû'-n-Nûn, ḏū n-nūn (celui au poisson) ذو النون : personnage cité dans le Coran5 ;
Dhû'n-nûryin, ḏū n-nūrīyn (celui qui a deux lumières) ذو النورین : un surnom de `Uthman ;
Dhuhan, ḍouḥan (matinée) ضحى : clarté du jour6 ;
Dîn, dīn (religion) دین : souvent traduit par « religion » ;
Diya, diya (le prix du sang) دیة : prix du sang pour un homicide involontaire7 ;
Djihad, voir Jihad ;
Djinn, jinn (djinn) جنّ : génies; démons; djinns8 ;
Djizyîa, voir Jiz'ya ;
Duʿâʾ, duʿāʾ (prière) دعاء : prière personnelle ; supplication ; appel. Prière personnelle en opposition avec Salat la prière canonique.
Dunya, dunyā (ici-bas) دنیا : ici-bas, le monde, biens de ce monde en opposition avec l'au-delà ('âkhira) ;
E[modifier]

Eblis, voir Iblis ;
Envoyé, voir Messager ;
F[modifier]

Fajara, fajir فاجر pl. fajara (débauché) فجرة : libertin ;
Fajr, fajr (prière du matin) فجر : aube ; aurore ;
Fakir, faqīr (fakir, faquir) فقیر : pauvre pl. : fuqarāʾ, فقراء : désigne un ascète soufi ; Peut être rapproché du mot persan derviche, signifiant « mendiant » ;
Falah, falāḥ (bonheur) فلاح : réussite ; bonheur ; succès ;
Fanaʾ, fanāʾ (fanā') فناء : anéantissement ; évanouissement; extase mystique ;
Fard, farḍ فرض pl. furūḍ فروض) : obligatoire, selon la religion.
Fâsiq, fāsiq (débauché) فاسق : débauché ;
Fâtir, fātir (créateur) فاطر : qui ne jeûne pas ; créateur9 ;
Fatwa, fatwā (fatwā, fetva) فتوى : avis juridique qui complète le fiqh ;
Fiqh, fiqh (fiqh) فقه : jurisprudence ;
Fitna, fitna (fitna) فتنة : séduction (féminine); émeute; dissension. En matière religieuse rupture; schisme.
Fi sabil Allah, fī sabīl allāh (sur la voie de Dieu) فی سبیل الله : sur le chemin de Dieu.. manière de nommer le Jihad ;
Fitra, fiṭraʰ (fitra) فطرة : nature d'une chose, et spécifiquement nature de l'homme ;
Furqan, furqān (discernement) فرقان : preuve ; séparation entre le bien et le mal ;
G[modifier]

Ghafara, ḡafara (pardonner) غفر
Ghafla, ḡafla (insouciance) (غفلة : imprévoyance ; négligence, indifférence
Ghayba, ḡayba (occultation) غیبة : absence; éloignement; disparition; l'occultation dans laquelle se trouverait l'imam occulté, le douzième imam dans le chiisme duodécimain ;
Ghulâm / Ghimân, ḡulām (adolescent) غلام pl. ḡilmān غلمان : adolescent ; garçon ; éphèbe du paradis10 : Voir Wildân. Le mot désigne aussi les soldats esclaves : Voir Mamelouk ;
Ghusl, ḡusl (grande ablution) غسل : les grandes ablutions ;
H[modifier]

Habous, ḥubs, (leg ; don) حبس pl. ʾaḥbās, أحباس : Le habous est une donation pieuse permettant de laisser la jouissance de ce bien à des dévolutaires.
Hadath, ḥadaṯ, (évènement ; incident) حدث : évènement provoquant une impureté
ḥadaṯ al-aṣḡar, (impureté mineure), حدث الأصغر : impureté qui nécessite le recours aux petites ablutions ;
ḥadaṯ al-akbar, (impureté majeure), حدث الأکبر : impureté qui nécessite le recours aux grandes ablutions ;
Hadd, ḥadd, (peine impérative), حدّ pl. ḥudūd حدود : Terme de droit musulman, peine que le juge ne peut pas la moduler car elle ordonnée par Dieu, ce terme s'oppose aux peines modulables par la juridiction (tazîr).
Hâdî, hādī (guide) هادی : guide ; un des 99 attributs de Dieu ;
Hadith, ḥadīṯ (hadîth, hadith) حدیث pl. ʾahādīṯ أحادیث : parole ou acte de Mahomet considérés comme un exemple à suivre par les pratiquants ;
Hafiz, ḥāfiẓ (hâfiz) حافظ : personne qui connaît le Coran par cœur ;
Hajj, ḥajj, (pèlerinage) حجّ : pèlerinage à La Mecque, l'un des cinq piliers de l'islam ;
Hakim, ḥākim, (autorité ; magistrat), حاکم : Al-Hakîm un des 99 attributs de Dieu ;
Halal, ḥalāl (hallal, halal) حلال : permis ; non sacré ; profane, licite par opposition avec interdit (harâm) ;
Halîm, ḥalīm, (doux ; magnanime ; indulgent) حلیم : Qualifie le caractère de Loth11. Halim est le nom d'une divinité sabéenne. Al-Halim est l'un des 99 attributs de Dieu ;
Hanif, ḥanīf (hanîf) حنیف : le monothéisme islamique pur, l'orthodoxie ;
Haqq, ḥaqq (justice) حقّ : vérité ; droit ; justice. un des 99 attributs de Dieu : al-Haqq ;
Haqîqa, ḥaqīqa (vérité) حقیقة : vérité ; vrai ; authenticité ;
Haram, ḥarām (harâm, haram) حرام : ce qui est sacré; ce qui est interdit par la religion, tabou en opposition avec permis (halal) ;
Harem, ḥarīm (harem) حریم : gynécée; sérail; lieu interdit aux hommes autres que les membres de la famille proche ;
Hasan, ḥasan (beau ; bon) حسن : beau ; bon ;
Hégire, hijraʰ (hégire) هجرة : émigration de Mahomet et de ses compagnons de La Mecque à Médine ;
Hidâya, hidāyya هدایة : conduite ; direction morale ;
Hijab, ḥijāb (hijâb, hidjab) حِجَاب : voile ;
Himmâ, ḥimmā () حمّى : réserve ; sanctuaire ;
Hisba, ḥisba (contrôle) حِسْبة : calcul ; vérification, au départ sorte de service de la répression des fraudes devenu police religieuse ;
Hizb, ḥizb (1/60 du Coran ; faction) حزب pl. ʾaḥzāb أحزاب : Terme utilisé dans le Coran pour désigner les membres de la tribu des quraychites et les juifs qui résidaient à Médine qui se sont alliés contre les musulmans de Médine12. Ce mot désigne aussi 1/60 du Coran c’est-à-dire la moitié d'un Juzʾ ;
Houri, hūrīya (houri) حوریة, pl. hūrīyāt حوریات : les vierges du paradis ;
Huddâ, huddā (orthodoxie) هدّى : (bonne) direction ; orthodoxie ;
Hudna, hudna (trêve) هدنة : cessez le feu ; armistice ; trêve ;
Hudud, ḥudūd (limites) حدود : les limites des peines légales prescrites par le Coran ;
Hukm, ḥukm (jugement ) حکم : jugement ; décision ; verdict ;
Humaza, humaza (calomniateur) همزة : médisant ; calomniateur13. Le calomniateur est voué aux enfers ;
I[modifier]

ʿIbâda, ʿibāda (culte) عبادة : culte ; l'aspect spirituel de l'islam ; la charia en étant l'aspect législatif ;
ʾIblîs, ʾiblīs (Iblîs ou Eblîs) إبلیس ; Le démon, c'est le nom d'un djinn qui refuse de se prosterner devant Adam sur l'injonction de Dieu. C'est l'équivalent de Lucifer ;
ʿIchâʾ, ʿišāʾ (soir) عشاء : soir ; prière du début de la nuit ; la cinquième prière de la journée dans l'islam ;
ʿidda al-marʾâ, (délai de viduité) عدّة المرأة : la femme divorcée n'est libre de quitter le domicile conjugal que trois mois après le prononcé du divorce ou après l'accouchement si elle est enceinte14. Le code civil français prévoyait, pour les femmes, un an sans avoir le droit de se remarier jusqu'en 200415.
ʾIftâr, ʾifṭār (rupture du jeûne) إفطار : repas de rupture du jeûne de ramadan ; « déjeuner » ;
ʾIhrâm, ʾiḥrām (consécration) إحرام : état de consécration rituelle ; vêtement blanc de celui qui accomplit dans cet état le grand ou le petit pèlerinage ;
ʾIhsân, ʾiḥsān (charité) إحسان : la parfaite adoration de Dieu ;
ʾIʿjâz, ʾiʿjāz إعجاز : le caractère inimitable du Coran ;
ʾIjmâʿ, ʾijmāʿ (consensus) إجماع : consensus des oulémas ou de l'ʾoumma entière sur des questions morales, religieuses ou juridiques, suppléant la sunna ;
ʾIjtihâd, ʾijtihād (exégèse) إجتهاد : effort d'interprétation du Coran et des hadith ;
ʾIlah, ʾilah (dieu) إله f. ʾilaha (déesse) إلهة : divinité ; dieu ;
ʿIlm, ʿilm (savoir) علم : science au sens large détenue par les oulémas;
ʾImâm, ʾimām (ʾimâm, imam) إمام : personne qui dirige la prière ; littéralement : « celui qui est devant » ; pour les shî‘ites, c'est le successeur de Mahomet, le Guide spirituel de la communauté.
Imamat, ʾimāmaʰ (imamat) إمامة : le système des imams chez les chiites ;
ʾÎmân, ʾīmān (foi) إیمان : croyance ; foi ;
ʾInchaʿ Allāh, ʾinšāʾ allāh إنشاء الله : si Dieu le veut ;
ʾInfâq, ʾinfāq (dépense) إنفاق : la tendance à donner plutôt que prendre ;
Al-ʾInjîl, al-ʾinjīl (l'évangile) الإنجیل : l'évangile, au singulier, car les Évangiles canoniques ne sont pas l'évangile initial aux yeux des musulmans ;
Iqâma, iqāma (appel à la prière) اقامة : deuxième appel à la prière, après l'adhan et juste avant le premier takbir ;
ʿĪsā, ʿĪsā (Jésus) عیسى : Jésus fils de Marie comme le Coran le nomme car il est supposé ne pas avoir de père biologique. La Bible chrétienne en arabe utilise le nom de Yasûʿa (yasūʿa یسوع) ;
Islam, ʾislām (islam) إسلام : « soumission ». Le musulman est en effet « soumis » à Dieu ;
ʿIsma, ʿiṣma (infaillibilité) عصمة : infaillibilité ; invulnérabilité ; immunité ; impécabilité ;
Isnad, ʾisnād (chaîne de garants) إسناد : la chaîne des personnes qui rapportent un hadith ;
Isra, ʾisrāʾ (voyage nocturne) إسراء : le voyage nocturne de Mahomet raconté dans le miraj ;
Istislah, ʾistiṣlāḥ (correction) إستصلاح : correction ; restauration ; réforme ;
Istichhâd, ʿistišhād (témoignage ; martyre) إستشهاد : martyr au sens islamique ;
Itmâm al-hujja, itmām al-ḥujja (argument final) اتمام الحجة : l'explication complète de la foi ;
J[modifier]

Jahannam, jahannam (géhenne) جهنم : enfer ;
Jahiliya, jāhiliyya (la période préislamique) جَاهِلِیَّ : ignorance, paganisme désigne la période préislamique ;
Jahl, jāhl (ignorance) جهل : ignorance ; arrogance ;
Jâmiʿ, voir Mosquée ;
Jâmiʿa, jāmiʿa (rassemblement) جامعة : association ; rassemblement par exemple université ; académie ; association ; ligue ; fédération ;
Janaza, janāza (enterrement) جنازة : funérailles ;
Janna, janna (jardin) جنة : jardin ; paradis ;
Jazak Allâh Khayr, jazāk allāh ḫayr () جزاک الله خیر : « Que Dieu te récompense pour tes bienfaits » ;
Jihâd, jihad (djihad ; lutte) جِهَاد : lutte ; effort ; effort sur soi-même ; guerre sainte ;
al-Jihâd al-ʾAʿzam, al-jihād al-ʾaʿẓam الجهاد الأعظم : grand jihad ; lutte suprème, celle de la réforme de soi-même
al-Jihâd al-ʾAsghar, al-jihād al-ʾaṣḡar الجهاد الأصغر : petit jihad ; la guerre sainte ; guerre de défense de l'islam ;
Jilbâb, jilbāb (Djellaba) جلباب : c'est un mot que l'on traduit parfois par voile dans le Coran16 ;
Jinn, voir Djinn.
Jizʾya, jizʾya (capitation) جِزْیة : nom donné à la capitation payée par les dhimmis ;
Jumâdâ al-Ûlâ, jumādā al-ʾūlā (le premier (mois) dur) جمادى الأولى : nom du cinquième mois du calendrier musulman ;
Jumâdâ ath-Thânîa, jumādā aṯ-ṯānīa (le second (mois) dur) جمادى الثانیة : nom du sixième mois du calendrier musulman;
Jumua, jumuʿa (vendredi) جمعة : le jour où l'on s'assemble (jamaʿa) pour la prière ;
Juzʾ, juzʾ (1/30 du Coran) جزء pl. ajzāʾ أجزاء : Le Coran divisé en trente parties pour sa récitation en un mois. Un signe particulier marque le début de ces divisions ۞ ;
K[modifier]

Kaʿaba, kaʿaba (cube) کعبة : cube ; la Kaʿaba de La Mecque ;
Kafir, kāfir (kâfir) کافر : mécréant ; celui qui ne croit pas en Dieu et plus généralement qui ne reconnait pas L'Islam comme la dernière religion de Dieu à suivre ;
Kalâm, ʿalim al-kalām (théologie) علم الکلام : science de la parole (divine) ;
Karb, karb al-ʿaẓīm (déluge) کرب العظیم : l'immense cataclysme17. Voir aussi Tûfân ;
Khalife, voir Calife ;
Khâliq, ḫāliq (créateur) خالق : Al-Khâliq est un des 99 attributs de Dieu ;
Kharâj, ḫarāj (impôt foncier) خراج : taxe ; impôt foncier dû par les propriétaires non-musulman ;
Khâtib, ḫāṭib (prédicateur) خطیب : celui qui prononce le sermon du vendredi (khutba) ;
Khayr (خیر) : le "bien".
Khilâfa, voir Califat ;
Khitân, ḫitān (circoncision) ختان : circoncision ;
Kufr, kufr (koufr) کفر : mécréance, apostasie ;
Khadîja, ḫadīja (khadidja) خدیجة : nom de la première épouse de Mahomet; le mot laisse entendre qu'elle était un bébé fragile à la naissance : un avorton.
Khums, ḫums (un cinquième ; 1/5) خمس
Khutba, ḫuṭba (prédication) خطبة : prédication ; discours ; sermon du vendredi ;
Kitâb, kitāb (livre) کتاب : livre ; le Coran est appelé Al-Kîtab;
L[modifier]

Laghw, laḡw (futilité) لغو : conversation inutile, futile ;
Latîf, laṭīf (bienveillant) لطیف : bienveillant ; gentil ; aimable. Al-Latîf : un des 99 attributs de Dieu.
Lâzim, lāzim (obligatoire) لازم : indispensable ; nécessaire ; obligatoire ;
Lisân, lisān (langue) لسان : langue (anatomique ou linguistique) ;
Laʿîn, laʿīn (détesté) ﻟﻌﻴﻦ : maudit ; réprouvé. Al-Laʿîn : Satan.
Laʿna, laʿna (anathème) لعنة : anathème ; malédiction ;
Layla al-Qadr, (nuit du destin) لیلة القدر : « La nuit du destin » une nuit vers la fin du mois de Ramadan pendant laquelle Mahomet a reçu la première révélation ;
M[modifier]

Maʿâd, maʿād (destination) معاد : l’au-delà comme destination finale ;
Māchaʿ Allāh, māšāʾ allāh (Dieu l'a voulu) ماشاء الله : en écho à « si Dieu le veut » (Inchaʿ Allāh) : . On dit aussi Mektoub ;
Mashhad, mašhad (lieu d'un martyre) مشهد : Mashhad est le nom de la deuxième ville d’Iran, lieu du mausolée d’`Alî ben Mûsâ ar-Ridhâ huitième imam.
Madhhab, maḏhab (école juridique) مذهب : école de pensée juridique. Désigne aussi le système de pensée qui en est issu, voire la religion et la foi ;
Madrasa, madrasaʰ (école) مدرسة : école au sens large ; en particulier école ou université coranique ;
Maghreb, maḡrib (occident) مغرب : occident ; couchant ; ouest ;
Mahram, maḥram محرم : personne de la même famille avec qui on ne peut se marier ;
Maghrib, maḡrib (prière du soir) مغرب : la quatrième prière canonique au coucher du soleil ;
Mahdî, mahdī (mahdi) مهدی : pour les Sunnites, homme guidé par ʾAllāh qui viendra vers la fin des temps ; chez les Chiites, c'est une figure eschatologique proche du Messie hébreu ;
Majlis, majlis (parlement, réunion) مجلس : endroit où l'on s'assied ; parlement ; réunion ;
Makrûh, makrūh (détestable) مکروه : qualifie des actes réprouvés mais non réprimés ;
Malâʾka, malāʾika (ange) ملائکة : ange ;
Ma malakat aymanukum, mā malaat ʾaymānukum (que votre main droite possède) ما ملکت أیمانکم : cette expression désigne les captives de guerre (esclaves) que le musulman peut épouser en toute légalité18 ;
Mamelouk, mamlūk (possédé ; mamelouk) مملوک pl. mamālīk ممالیک : membres d'une milice formée d'esclaves, affranchis et recevant une solde à l'issue de leur formation, au service des califes et de l'empire ottoman ;
Mandub, mandūb (recommandé) مندوب : recommandable (voir halal et mustahabb) ;
Mansûkh, voir Abrogé ;
Manzil, manzil (1/7 du Coran) منزل : désigne une des sept parties du Coran pour sa récitation en une semaine (voir aussi juzʾ) ;
Maqsid, maqṣid (but) مقصد : but ; intension ;
Maqsura, maqṣūra (maqsura, loge) مفصورة : loge ; loge à l'intérieur d'une mosquée où le souverain se met à l'abri des attentats ;
Marabout, murābiṭ (murâbit ; marabout) مرابط : saint ; membre d’une râbita ; ascète ;
Mardûd, mardūd (repoussé) مردود : qualifie les hadiths considérés comme apocryphes ;
Maʿrûf, maʿrūf (bien connu) معروف : ce qui est connu de tous ;
Masjid, voir Mosquée ;
Masyah, voir Messie ;
Maʿsûm, maʿsūm () معصوم, pl. maʿsūmūn معصومون, maʿsūmīn معصومین : littéralement, complètement intact ; impeccable. Cela peut qualifier un enfant indemne de tout péché. Les chiites duodécimains considèrent Mahomet, sa fille Fatima et les douze imams comme les quatorze ma`asûmûn.
Maulânâ ou Mawlânâ, mawlānā (notre mollah) مولانا : notre maître ; titre de respect pour une autorité en matière de religion (voir Mollah) ;
Mawlid, abreviation de : mawlid an-nabawîy, مولد النبویّ, naissance du prophète : fête qui commémore la naissance de Mahomet ;
Mawlâ/Mawâlî, mawlā , (client, esclave affranchi) مولى, au pl. mawālin موالٍ, mawlā (موْلى) ; nom donnés aux esclaves affranchis mais qui restent attachés à leur maître / c'est curieusement le même mot qui donne Mollah et a un sens presque contraire ;
Médersa, madrasa (médersa) مدرسة : vocalisation du mot madrasa utilisée au Maghreb pour désigner une université coranique ;
Mektoub, mektūb ((c'était) fatal) ﻣﻜﺘﻮﺏ : fatal ; écrit (voir Māchaʿ Allāh) ;
Messager, rasūl (prophète, envoyé, messager, rasûl) رسول : envoyé; messager (de Dieu). Le prophète (Nabî) lance des avertissements à une population donnée, le messager (Rasûl) apporte une révélation majeure ;
Messie, masyaḥ (messie) مسیح : Le Messie (Jésus) est différent du Mahdi ;
Mihrab, miḥrāb (mihrâb) محراب : niche tournée vers la Mecque dans une mosquée ;
Minaret, miʾḏana (minaret) مئذنة : le mot arabe désigne le lieu d'où le muezzin (muʾwaḏḏin) fait l'appel à la prière (ʾaḏân). Le mot français dérive du turc minare venant du mot arabe manāraʰ, منارة, signifiant « tour » ;
Miʿraj, miʿrāj (ascension) مِعْرَاج : ascension (littéralement : « échelle ») de Mahomet aux cieux lors du « voyage nocturne » (isra) ;
Minbar, minbar (minbar) منبر : chaire du prédicateur ;
Minhaj, minhaj (méthode) منهج : méthodologie ; ligne de conduite ;
Miswâk, miswāk (cure-dent) ﻣﺴﻮﺍﻙ, voir Siwak
Mollah / Mullah, mawlā (mollah) ملا : aide ; auxiliaire ; dans l'islam, titre donné aux personnalités religieuses, aux docteurs de la loi ;
Mosquée, jāmiʿ (jâmiʿ, mosquée) : lieu de l'assemblée; grande mosquée, donne le mot turc cami, le mot français mosquée dérive de masjid مسجد : lieu où l'on se prosterne ;
Mu'akkada معاقدة se dit d'une pratique religieuse très fortement recommandée. Le terme est plus fort que Mustahabb.
Mubâh, mubāḥ (autorisé) مباح : qualifie ce qui est ni interdit ni recommandé (voir halal) ;
Muezzin, muʿwaḏḏin (muezzin) مؤذن : le mot français dérive du turc müezzin, venant de l'arabe, et désigne la personne de la mosquée chargée de l'appel à la prière (ʾaḏân) ;
Muhâjir, muhājir (muhâjir) مهاجر pl. muhājirūn (muhâjirûn) مهاجرون : exilés, réfugiés, désigne les compagnons de Mahomet qui l'ont rejoint à Médine au moment de l'hégire pour les distinguer de ceux qui sont originaires de Médine.
Muhtasib, muḥtasib (muhtasib) مُحْتَسِب : au départ contrôleur des prix; chargé de hisba, plus tard sa mission a consisté à traquer les apostats et autres hérétiques pour les tuer ;
Muharram, muḥarram (sacré) محرم : nom du premier mois du calendrier musulman, le plus sacré.
Mouloud, muulud, mouled ou maoulide voir Mawlid ;
Muʿawidhatân, muʿawiḏatān (les deux (sourates) protectrices) معوذتان : Al-Muʿawidhatân est le nom donné aux deux dernières sourates du Coran "L’aube" et "Les Hommes"19, dites les sourates du refuge censées protéger de la souffrance et du mauvais œil ;
Muchrik, mušrik (polythéiste ; associateur), مشرک pl. mušrikūn مشرکون : Celui qui professe qu'il y a d'autres divinités (idoles) avec Dieu : Un terme fréquent dans le Coran, par exemple Le Coran, « La Vache », II, 105 ; (ar) البقرة ;
Mufsid, mufsid (corrupteur) مفسد pl. mufsidūn مفسدون ;
Mufti ممفتی est un religieux musulman sunnite qui est un interprète de la loi musulmane. Il a l'autorité d'émettre des avis juridiques, appelés fatwas ;
Mujahid, mujāhid (mujâhid, moudjahid) مجاهد pl. mujāhidūn (moudjahidin) مجاهدون : combattant; résistant; militant, celui qui pratique le jihād ;
Mujtahid, mujtahid (mujtahid) مجتهد : celui qui a les qualifications requises pour pratiquer l'ʾijtihād ;
Muladi, espagnol : muladí, pl. muladíes, de l'arabe muwallad, (métis), مولّد : désignait dans al-Andalus, les nouveaux convertis à l'islam ;
Muʾmin, muʾmin (croyant) مؤمن pl. muʾminūn مؤﻣﻨﻮﻥ ;
Munafiq, munafiq (hypocrite) منفق : pl. munāfiqūn منافقون20 ;
Munaqaba, munaqaba منقبة pl. munaqabāt منقبات : une femme qui porte le niqab ;
Murâbit, voir Marabout
Murchid, muršid (guide (spirituel)) مرشد : dans le soufisme un guide spirituel ;
Mustahabb, mustaḥabb (préférable) مستحبّ : qualifie une action recommandable mais non obligataire (voir halal)
Musulman, muslim (musulman, mahométan, islamiste) pl. muslimūn (musulmans, mahométans, islamistes) مسلمون : le mot français dérive du turc müslüman ou du farsi مسلمان mosalmān, venant de l'arabe : textuellement « soumis ». Le musulman se soumet au Coran, parole d'Allah, adepte de l'islam ;:
Murtadd, murtadd (apostat) مرتد : apostat ; celui qui renie l'islam ;
Muslim, forme anglo-saxone du mot musulman, voir Musulman ;
Mutʿa, mutʿaʰ (mutʿa) متعة : compensation donnée à une femme après un divorce, désigne aussi le mariage temporaire.
Mutawâtir, mutawātir (récurrent) متواتر : notoires ; récurrent, se dit d'un hadith se trouvant à plusieurs reprises avec des chaînes de garants différentes ;
N[modifier]

Nabî, voir Prophète ;
Nafil, nāfil (superflu) نافل : surérogatoire ;
Nafs, nafs (âme) نفس : âme ;
Nahw, naḥw (nahw) نَحْو : grammaire, nécessaire pour comprendre le Coran ;
Najâsa, najāsa (impureté) ; état d'impureté qui oblige le croyant à recourir aux grandes ablutions.
Nakîr et Munkar, nakīr wa munkar () منکر و نکیر : Les noms des deux anges qui testent la foi des défunts dans leur tombe ;
Nasîha, naṣīḥa (conseil) نصیحة : avis ; recommandation ;
Nâsikh, voir Abrogeant ;
Nass, naṣṣ (décision) نصّ : prescription ; clause ; stipulation ;
Nifaq, nifāq (tartufferie) نفاق : fourberie ; imposture ; pharisaïsme ;
Niqab, niqāb (voile de visage) نقاب : voile attaché derrière la tête posé sur le haut du nez couvrant le bas du visage ;
Nûr, nūr (lumière) النور21 ;
Nubuwwa, nubuwwa (prophétie) نبوّة ;
O[modifier]

Pour les mots arabes commençant par « Ou~ », voir aussi U~.
Occultation, voir Ghrayba
Ouléma, ʿālim (‘âlim, ouléma) عَالِم : au sens littéral, « celui qui connaît ». En islam, « théologien ». Plus connu au pluriel, ʿulamāʾ (‘oulamâ’) عُلَمَاء, passé en français sous la forme ouléma, qui sert aussi de singulier : « un ouléma » ;
Oumma, ʾummaʰ (ʾoumma) أُمَّة : la communauté des croyants ;
`Oumra, ʿumraʰ (‘oumra) عُمْرَة : (petit) pèlerinage non obligatoire, ne faisant pas partie des cinq piliers de l'islam ;
`Ourf, ʿurf (‘ourf) عُرْف : coutume ;
P[modifier]

Paradis, le paradis des musulmans est un jardin (voir Janna) ;
Prophète, nabī (prophète) نبیّ, pl. anbiyā' أنْبیاء : prophète22 ; voir aussi Messager ;
Q[modifier]

Qadarite, qadarīy (fataliste) قدریّ : Le mot qadarite (qadarîy) est pris par antiphrase. Il signifie fataliste mais doit être compris comme partisan du libre arbitre. Le qadarisme (Al-) est apparu dès le viie siècle proclamant le libre arbitre et considérant que chaque croyant est responsable de ses actes.
Qadhâʾ wa l-Qadr al-qaḍāʾ wa l-qadr (la fatalité) القضاء و القدر : la volonté de Dieu ;
Qadi, qāḍi (qâdi, qadi) قاض : juge des affaire civiles ;
Qadr, qadr (destinée) قدر : dose ; mesure ; décret divin. C'est la volonté divine telle qu'elle existe avant même la création.
Qaddûs, qaddūs (très saint) قدّوس : Al-Qaddûs est l'un des 99 attributs de Dieu23 ;
Qalam, qalam (calame) قلم grec: kalamos καλαμος : calame ; crayon ; stylo24. Instrument d'écriture, il est le symbole de la révélation « écrite » du Coran. C'est d'un point de vue ésotérique l'équivalent du « Verbe » de l'Évangile de Jean. C'est le principe créateur dont tout émane25.
Qasas, qaṣaṣ (récit) قصص : récit ;histoire; narration; relation26 ;
Qibla, qiblaʰ (direction; sud) قبلة : direction de La Mecque pour la prière ;
Qisâs, qisās (talion) قصاص : talion ; compensation ; punition ;
Qîyâma, qīyāma (résurrection) قیامة : résurrection ; jour du jugement27 ;
Qiyas, qiyās (qiyâs) قِیَاس : analogie, raisonnement juridique ou religieux fondé sur l'analogie avec les règles déjà connues ;
Qudsî, qudsīy (sacré) قدسیّ : Les hadiths sacrés (qudsî) sont considérés comme rapportant la parole divine et non celle du prophète.
Qurʾân voir Coran ;
Quraychite, qurašīy (quraychite) قرشیّ : Membre de la tribu du prophète Mahomet dont l'éponyme Quraych est né quatre générations avant le prophète28 ;
R[modifier]

Rabb, rabb (maître) ربّ : maître ; seigneur ; Dieu. Ar-Rabb est l'un des 99 attributs de Dieu ;
Rabî`a al-Awal, rabīʿa al-ʾawal (le premier (mois) du printemps) ربیع الأول : nom du troisième mois du calendrier musulman.
Rabi`a ath-Thani, rabīʿa aṯ-ṯānī (le second (mois) du printemps) ربیع الثانی : nom du quatrième mois du calendrier musulman.
Râbita, rābiṭa (communauté) رابِطة : communauté soufie de (marabouts) ;
Rachîd, rašīd (bien dirigé) رشید pl. rāšidūn راشدون : raisonnable ; orthodoxe; bien dirigé ;
Rahmân, raḥmān (clément) الرحمن : Ar-Rahmân est l'un des 99 attributs de Dieu ;
Rahîm, raḥīm (miséricordieux) الرحیم : Ar-Rahîm est l'un des 99 attributs de Dieu ;
Raʾi, ou Ra'y, raʾy, raʾi رأْی : opinion personnelle du juge ;
Rajab, rajab (respecté ; vénérable) رجب : nom du septième mois du calendrier musulman. C'est l'un des quatre mois sacrés.
Rajm, rajm (lapidation) رجم : caillassage : lapidation ;
Rakʿa, rakʿa (prosternation) رکعة , pl. rakaʿāt ﺭﻛﻌﺎﺕ : unité de base de la prière canonique (Salat) ; chacune des prières quotidiennes est constituée d'un nombre déterminé de prosternations ;
Ramadan, ramaḍān ((le mois du soleil) brûlant) رمضان ramaḍān) : nom du neuvième mois du calendrier musulman. Ce mois qui rappelle le début de la révélation du Coran faite à Mahomet, est marqué par le jeûne.
Rasûl, voir Messager ;
Rîba, rība (doute) ریبة : doute ; soupçon ; le doute est une maladie qui ronge le cœur29
Ribh, ribḥ (intérêt) ربﺢ pl. ʾarbāḥ أرباح: le prêt avec intérêts usuraires est prohibé par le Coran30 ;
Ridda, ridda (apostasie) ردّة : apostasie ; abjuration ;
Rifâda, rifāda (aide) رفادة : assistance ; charge honorifique à La Mecque, consistant à assurer l'approvisionnement en nourriture des pèlerins ;
Risâla, risāla (message) رسالة : message ; mission; apostolat. C'est le message apporté par le Messager (Rasûl) ;
Rûh, rūḥ (esprit) روح : esprit, souffle, essence ; âme. C'est le souffle divin qui donne vie à Adam31
Rukn, rukn (pilier) رکن pl. ʾarkān أرکان : pilier ; appui ; colonne ; principe de base ; principe élémentaire. Par exemple les piliers de l'islam.
Rukûʿ, rukūʿ (prosternement) رکوع : synonyme de Rakʿa ;
S[modifier]

Sabr, ṣabr (patience) ﺻﺒﺮ : maîtrise de soi ; endurance ;
Sadaqa, ṣadaqa (aumône) صدقة : aumône; aumône volontaire. en opposition avec l'aumone légale (Zakâ)
Sadâq, ṣadāq (douaire) صداق : dot ; douaire. Dot donnée par le futur mari à son épouse. En principe cette dot doit rester la propriété exclusive de l'épouse32 ;
Safar, ṣafar صفر : nom du deuxième mois du calendrier musulman ;
Sahâba, ṣaḥāba (compagnon) صحابة, sing. ṣaḥābīy (sahâbîy) صحابی, fem. ṣaḥābīya (sahâbîya) صحابیة, désigne les compagnons des Mahomet.
Sahîh, adj. ṣaḥīḥ (authentique) صحیح : authentique; vrai. Employé comme nom pour désigner les recueils de hadiths de Bukhari et de Muslim. Employé comme adjectif cela qualifie ces recueils.
Sahûr, saḥūr (petit déjeuner) سحور : repas pris avant le lever du soleil pendant le jeûne du mois de Ramadan ;
Salâ, ṣalā (prière (canonique)) صلاة pl. ṣalāt (salât) صلات : la prière / les prières, l'un des cinq piliers de l'islam ;
Salafisme, salafīya (salafisme) سلفیّة, maḏāhab as-salaf (la doctrine de l'islam originel) مذاهب السلف, as-salaf aṣ-ṣaliḥ (les pieux anciens) السلف الصلح, : doctrine faisant référence aux trois premières générations de l'islam, réputées être de parfaits modèles ;
Salâm, salām (paix) سلام : le mot arabe paix partage une racine commune (SLM) avec Islam, ʾislām (islam) إسلام : « soumission » ;
Sallâ Allâhu ʿalayhi wa salam, ṣallā-llāhu ʿalayhi wa sallam صلى الله علیه و سلم ou ﷺ : « que la paix et la prière (bénédiction) d'Allah soient sur lui », eulogie saluant le nom de Mahomet ;
Salsabîl, salsabīl () سلسبیل : Nom d'une source du paradis33 ;
Saoum / Sawm, ṣawm (jeûne) صوْم :le jeûne: cela peut être le jeûne du mois de Ramadan, l'un des cinq piliers de l'islam ou le jeune surérogatoire survenant à d'autres occasions (jeûner tous les lundi et jeudi par exemple).
Saqar, saqar (feu ardent) سقر : Un des multiples noms de l'enfer dans le Coran34 ;
Satan, šayṭān (démon) شیطان : démon ; (un) satan ; Iblîs. Utilisé comme nom commun et au pluriel : les satans35 ;
Sayyid, sayyid (sayid, sayyid) سـیّد : seigneur. Titre utilisé pour les descendants de Mahomet ;
Shu`ûbiya šuʿūbiya (internationalisme) شعوبیة : désigne le mouvement de résistance à la domination des arabes dans le monde musulman en particulier en Iran et en Al-Andalous pendant la période abbasside.
Sîra, sīra (sîra, biographie) سیرة : nom des biographies de Mahomet.
Sirât al-Mustaqîm, aṣ-ṣirāṭ al-mustaqīm (le chemin des élus) الصراط المستقیم : chemin droit. Expression que l'on retrouve fréquemment dans le Coran. C'est alors le chemin à suivre36 ;
Siwâk, siwāk (cure-dent) ﺴﻮﺍﻙ : cure-dent naturel dont l'utilisation est recommandée dans les hadiths37 ;
Soufî, ṣūfī (soufî, soufisme) صوفی : courant mystique de l'islam (littéralement : « laine » de la cape portée par les soufis) ;
Subhan Allâh, subḥan allāh (gloire à Dieu) سبحان الله : expression d'admiration ou de surprise ;
Subhanahu taʿâlâ, subḥanahu taʿālā (Dieu soit loué) سبحانه تعالى ; dans les textes religieux musulmans, écrits ou oraux, cette eulogie suit le mot Allâh.
Sourate, sūra (sourate) سورة : ce qui est rangé ; chapitre du Coran ;
Sunna, sunna (sunna) سنّة : ensemble des faits, gestes et paroles prophétiques en islam rapportés par ses compagnons ;
Sunnisme, sunnīy (sunnite, sunnisme) سنّیّ : « l'exemple » ; courant sunnite, majoritaire dans l'islam ;
T[modifier]

Ta'awwudh, taʿawwuḏ (invocation) تعوذ est une invocation qui demande la protection de Dieu contre Satan ;
Tabaʿīn, tābaʿīn (successeurs) تابعین : successeurs (des Sahaba) ; ceux qui suivent. Désigne les premiers musulmans nés après la mort de Mahomet.
Tachkîl, taškīl (vocalisation) تشکیل : vocalisation d'un texte en y ajoutant les voyelles brèves ;
Tafsir, tafsīr (exégèse) تفسیر : exégèse, notamment du Coran ;
Tâghoût, ṭāḡūt (idole) طاغوت : Nom d'une idole préislamique ; démon de la rébellion ; idole; faux dieu38 ;
Tahajjada, tahajjada (prière nocturne) تهجّد : prière nocturne surrérogatoire. Il est recommandé de passer jusqu'aux deux tiers de la nuit en prière39 ;
Tahâra, ṭahāra (purification) طهارة : Au sens profane : hygiène, purification, asepsie. Au sens religieux : faire ses ablutions rituelles ;
Tâhir, ṭāhir (pur) طاهر fem. ṭāhira طاهرة : pur ; limpide ; pour une femme, ne pas avoir ses règles ;
Tahrîf, taḥrīf (falsification) تحریف : Dans le Coran, juifs et chrétiens sont accusés d'avoir falsifié la révélation divine40, en particulier ils auraient effacé l'annonce de la venue de Mahomet ;
Taïfa, ṭāʾifa (confrérie) طائفة pl. ṭawāʾif طوائف : communauté; secte; confrérie. À l’époque où al-Andalus se fractionnait en petits royaumes dits de taïfas rivaux les Reyes de taifa.
Tajdîd, tajdīd (innovation) تجدید : renouveau ; renouvellement ; mouvement de réforme ;
Tajwid, tajwīd (embellissement) تجوید : embellissement, façon particulièrement appliquée de lire le Coran pour en tirer le plus de profit ;
Takfir, takfīr تکفیر : l'acte d'accuser un musulman d'être un infidèle (kâfir) ;
Talâq, talāq (répudiation) طلاق : répudiation ; divorce41 ;
Taleb, ṭalib (étudiant) طالب pl. ṭālibūn (taliban) طالبون : étudiant; candidat; demandeur; celui qui étudie afin d'obtenir une qualification ;
Taliban, ṭālibūn (talibans) طالبون : Nom d'un mouvement fondamentaliste afghan, dans ce sens, la forme plurielle du mot arabe est la seule utilisée ;
Tanzîl, tanzīl (révélation) تنزیل : Révélation divine descendue sur Mahomet42 ;
Taqiya, taqīyaʰ (dissimulation) تقیة : le fait de devoir se dissimuler pour pratiquer sa religion ;
Taqlid, taqlīd (imitation) تقلید : imitation, c'est-à-dire respect, sans les remettre en cause, des préceptes d'une jurisprudence ;
Taqsîr, taqṣīr (diminution) تقصیر : Rite qui marque la fin du pèlerinage à La Mecque, consistant pour les hommes à se couper les cheveux très court ou à se raser la crâne, pour les femmes à raccourcir la longueur des cheveux ;
Tarâwîh, tarāwīḥ ((prière de) repos) تراویح : qualifie les prières supplémentaires que l'on peut faire pendant les nuits du mois de Ramadan ;
Tariqa, ṭarīqa (confrérie) طریقة : ; voie ; méthode ; procédé. Confrérie de mystiques soufis ;
Tarkib, tarkīb (grammaire) ترکیب : construction (d'une phrase par exemple) ; étude de la grammaire arabe à partir du Coran ;
Tartîl, tartīl (déclamation lente) ترتیل : forme lente de tajwîd (récitation appliquée du Coran) ;
Tasawwuf, taṣawwuf (soufisme) تصوّف : soufisme ; mysticisme ;
Tasnîm, tasnīm تسنیم : Nom d'une source du paradis43 ;
Taslim, taslim (salutation) تسلم : salutation à la fin de la prière ;
Tawaf, ṭawāf (circuit) طواف : circumambulation autour de la Kaaba ;
Tawassoul, tawwasul, (imploration) توسل : notion d'intercession de Dieu ;
Tawhid, tawḥīd (monothéisme) توحید : monothéisme, appel à l'unicité de l'existence d'Allah ;
Tazîr, taʿzīr (châtiment) تعزیر : Ce terme de droit signifie que la peine dépend des lois locales et de la juridiction. Il s'oppose à hadd qui signifie que la peine a été fixée par Dieu ;
Tayammum, tayammum (ablution sèche) تیمّم : ablution faite avec du sable, ou de la pierre, en l'absence d'eau ;
Tubbaʿ, tubbaʿ تبّع : Nom d'un peuple sabéen du Yémen44 ;
Tûfân, ṭūfān (déluge) طوفان : inondation ; foule ; déluge45. Voir aussi Karb ;
Tuwâ, ṭuwā طوى : Dans le Coran46, c'est le nom de la vallée où se produit la scène du buisson ardent47
U[modifier]

`Ulama, voir Ouléma ;
Umma, voir Oumma ;
`Umra, voir `Oumra ;
`Urf, voir ‘Ourf ;
V[modifier]

W[modifier]

Wadd, wadd (amour) ودّ : Wadd est une divinité préislamique de l'amour et de l'amitié. Divinité de la tribu arabe des Banû Kalb (chiens?)48 ;
Wahdaniya Allah, waḥdānīya allah (unicité de Dieu) وحدانیّة اللّهِ : unicité de Dieu doctrine orthodoxe ;
Wahdat al-Wujud, waḥda al wuǧūd (wahda al-wujûd) وِحدَةُ الوُجُودِ : unicité de la création attestant l'unicité de Dieu, doctrine soufie développée par Ibn ʿArabî ;
Wahhabite / wahhabisme, wahhābīy (généreux) وهابیّ : doctrine sunnite hanbalite qui tire son nom de Muhammad ʿAbd al-Wahhâb, réformateur du xviiie siècle né en Arabie ;
Wahî, waḥī (inspiration) وحی : révélation, comme celle faite à Moïse49, elle se différencie de celle faite exclusivement à Mahomet (voir Tanzîl) ;
Wâjib, wājib (obligatoire) واجب : voir aussi Fard ;
Wakîl, wakīl (mandataire) وکیل pl. wukalāʾ وکلاء : avocat ; porte parole; mandataire. Dans l'ismaélisme ce sont les imâms qui représentent l'imâm caché. Al-Wakîl est un des 99 attributs de Dieu50 ;
Wâli, wāli (vice-roi) وال : Titre des gouverneurs arabes d'al-Andalus gouverneur de province ; vice-roi. Au Maroc c'est un préfet nommé par le roi. Ne pas confondre avec le mot suivant qui partage la même racine signifiant gouverner. ;
Walîy, walīy (protecteur) ولیّ pl. awlyāʾ أولیاء : saint ; ami de Dieu ; tuteur ; celui qui sert de guide spirituel. Le Coran invite à choisir ses amis parmi les croyants51 ;
Wâqiʿa, wāqiʿa (inéluctable) واقعة : accident ; fait accompli ; celle qui est inéluctable52 ;
Warrâq, warrāq (papetier) ورّاق : scribe ; éditeur ; notaire ; imprimeur ;
Wasat, wasaṭ (milieu) وسط : centre ; cœur ; milieu ; moyenne ; modération ;
Wasî, waṣīy (administrateur) وصیّ : exécuteur testamentaire ; tuteur. ʿAlî est pour les chiites le wasî de Mahomet et devait donc lui succéder ;
Waswâs, waswās (qui murmure) وسواس : Le tentateur peut-être un djinn ou un homme, il est en tous cas dirigé par le Démon53 ;
Wildân, wildān (garçon) ولدان : garçon ; éphèbe du paradis54. Voir aussi Ghulâm ;
Witr, witr ou watr (impair) وتر : prière surrérogatoire comportant un nombre impair de prosternations célébrée après la prière canonique de Isha et avant la prière de Chafʿ ;
Wudû', wuḍūʾ (woudou, petite ablution) وضوء : les petites ablutions avant la prière ;
X[modifier]

Y[modifier]

Yaghûth, yaḡūṯ یغوث : nom d'une divinité préislamique du secours vénérée au Yémen55 ;
Yâjûj wa Mâjûj, yāʾjūj wa māʾjūj (Gog et Magog) یأجوج و مأجوج : Gog et Magog sont d'étranges peuplades retranchées derrière de grandes murailles56. L'arrivée de ces peuples et évoquée dans des hadiths57 ;
Yaqin, yaqīn (certitude) یقین : la foi profonde58 ;
Yaʿûq, yaʿuq یعوق : nom d'une divinité préislamique yéménite des Hamdân ou des Mourâd55 ;
Yawm, yawm (jour) یوم : jour ; journée
Yawm Al-Qîyâma, yawm al-qiyāma (jour de la résurrection) یوم القیامة : le jour du jugement59 ; voir aussi Qîyâma ;
Z[modifier]

Zabur, zabūr (livre des psaumes Ps I) ﺯبور60 : les psaumes révélés à David sont d'après le Coran l'un des livres formant la révélation antéislamique ;
Zakat, zakāt (zakât) زکاة : aumône légale, l'un des cinq piliers de l'islam.
Zahirisme, ẓāhir (zâhir) ظاهِر : apparent; évident; manifeste. Terme de soufisme s'oppose à ésotérisme (bâtin).
Zaydisme, zaydīya زیدیة : Le zaïdisme est une branche du chiisme dont les adeptes reconnaissent Zayd ben `Alî comme cinquième et dernier imam.
Zâlim / Zâlimûn, ẓālim (injuste) ظالم : oppresseur ; injuste61 ;
Zamzam, nom pr. (murmure) زمزم : nom du puits foré à proximité de la Ka`aba.
Zaouïa, zāwīyaʰ (zaouïa, zawiya) زاویة : angle; recoin; confrérie; communauté soufi du Maghreb dans ce contexte ce mot est pratiquement synonyme de râbita.
Zaqqûm, zaqqūm (Zaqqûm) زقّوم : un arbre mythique qui aux enfers, sert de nourriture aux damnés62 ;
Zihâr, ẓihār (formule de répudiation préislamique) ظهار venant de ẓahr (dos ; verso) ظهر : ce terme désigne l'action de prononcer la formule préislamique de répudiation de son épouse : « Sois pour moi comme le dos de ma mère ». Cette formule au sens ambigu a été interdite par le Coran63 ;
Zikr voir Dhikr ;
Zina, zinā (adultère) زنا : adultère ; fornication
Zuhr, ẓuhr (prière de midi) ظهر : seconde prière canonique ;
Zûl- ~, voir Dhû'l- ~
Liste de termes venant du turc[modifier]

bayram (baïram) fête, employé pour désigner l'`aïd
minare (minaret) venant du mot arabe manāraʰ, مَنارة, signifiant « tour » ;
müezzin (muezzin) venant de l'arabe muʿwaḏḏin, مُؤَذِّن et désigne la personne de la mosquée chargée de l'appel à la prière (ʾaḏân) ;
müslüman (musulman) venant du pluriel arabe muslimûn مُسْلِمون, signifiant musulmans (soumis en français) ;
Mehmet dérivé turc pour Mahomet déformation de son nom arabe 'Muhammad", محمد.
Notes[modifier]

↑ "Le livre des gentils et des trois sages", édition de l' Éclat, 1992
↑ Le Coran, « Le Pays », XC [archive] ; (ar) البلد [archive]
↑ Le Coran, « Les Prophètes », XXI [archive], 85 ; (ar) الأنبیاء [archive]
↑ Le Coran, « La Caverne », XVIII [archive], 83-96 ; (ar) الکهف [archive]
↑ Le Coran, « La Plume », LXVIII [archive], 48 ; (ar) القلم [archive]
↑ Le Coran, « La Matinée », XCIII [archive] ; (ar) الضحى [archive]
↑ Le Coran, « Les Femmes », IV [archive], 92 ; (ar) النساء [archive]
↑ Le Coran, « Les Génies », LXXII [archive] ; (ar) الجن [archive]
↑ Le Coran, « Les Anges ou le Créateur », XXXV [archive] ; (ar) فاطر [archive]
↑ Le Coran, « Le Mont Sinaï », LII [archive], 24 ; (ar) الطور [archive]
↑ Le Coran, « Les Rangs », XXXVII [archive], 101 ; (ar) الصافات [archive]
↑ Le Coran, « Les Confédérés », XXXIII [archive] ; (ar) الأحزاب [archive]
↑ Le Coran, « Le Diffamateur », CIV [archive] ; (ar) الهمزة [archive]
↑ Le Coran, « Le Divorce », LXV [archive], 4 ; (ar) الطلاق [archive]
↑ Loi abrogée par la loi nº 2004-439 du 26 mai 2004
↑ Le Coran, « Les Confédérés », XXXIII [archive], 59 ; (ar) الأحزاب [archive]
↑ Le Coran, « Les Prophètes », XXI [archive], 76, En rangs 37; 76 ; (ar) الأنبیاء [archive]
↑ Le Coran, « Les Femmes », IV [archive], 3 ; (ar) النساء [archive]
↑ Le Coran, « L’Aube du jour », CXIII [archive] ; (ar) الفلق [archive] et Le Coran, « Les Hommes », CXIV [archive] ; (ar) الناس [archive]
↑ Le Coran, « Les Hypocrites », LXIII [archive] ; (ar) المنافقون [archive]
↑ Le Coran, « La Lumière », XXIV [archive] ; (ar) النور [archive]
↑ Le Coran, « Les Prophètes », XXI [archive] ; (ar) الأنبیاء [archive]
↑ Le Coran, « L’Émigration », LIX [archive], 23 ; (ar) الحشر [archive]
↑ Le Coran, « La Plume », LXVIII [archive] ; (ar) القلم [archive]
↑ Dictionnaire des symboles musulmans, Malek Chebel, Éditions Albin Michel (ISBN 978-2-226-12137-0)
↑ Le Coran, « L’Histoire ou les Aventures », XXVIII [archive] ; (ar) القصص [archive]
↑ Le Coran, « La Résurrection », LXXV [archive] ; (ar) القیامة [archive]
↑ Le Coran, « Les Koréïchites », CVI [archive] ; (ar) قریش [archive]
↑ Le Coran, « La Vache », II [archive], 9-10 ; (ar) البقرة [archive]
↑ Le Coran, « La Famille d’Imran », III [archive], 130 ; (ar) آل عمران [archive]
↑ Le Coran, « Hedjr », XV [archive], 29 ; (ar) الحجر [archive]
↑ Le Coran, « Les Femmes », IV [archive], 4-5 ; (ar) النساء [archive]
↑ Le Coran, « L’Homme », LXXVI [archive], 18 ; (ar) الإنسان [archive]
↑ Le Coran, « La Lune », LIV [archive], 48 ; (ar) القمر [archive]
↑ Le Coran, « Les Femmes », IV [archive], 60 ; (ar) النساء [archive]
↑ Par exemple Le Coran, « La Vache », II [archive], 6-7 ; (ar) البقرة [archive]
↑ Par exemple Sahîh de Bukharî Volume 1, Livre4, hadith n°246 (en) [archive]
↑ Par exemple Le Coran, « La Vache », II [archive], 256-257 ; (ar) البقرة [archive]
↑ Le Coran, « L’Enveloppe », LXXIII [archive], 1-4 et 20 ; (ar) المزمل [archive]
↑ Le Coran, « El-Araf », VII [archive], 75 ; (ar) الأعراف [archive]
↑ Le Coran, « Le Divorce », LXV [archive] ; (ar) الطلاق [archive]
↑ Le Coran, « Ya Sin », XXXVI [archive], 5-6 ; (ar) یس [archive]
↑ Le Coran, « Les Fraudeurs », LXXXIII [archive], 27 ; (ar) المطففین [archive]
↑ Le Coran, « La Fumée », XLIV [archive], 37 ; (ar) الدخان [archive]
↑ Le Coran, « L’Araignée », XXIX [archive], 14, Les redans 7; 133 ; (ar) العنکبوت [archive]
↑ Le Coran, « Ta Ha », XX [archive], 12 ; (ar) طه [archive]
↑ Exode III,5-6
↑ Le Coran, « Noé », LXXI [archive], 23-24 ; (ar) نوح [archive]
↑ Le Coran, « L’Étoile », LIII [archive], 4 ; (ar) النجم [archive]
↑ Le Coran, « Le Bétail », VI [archive], 102 ; (ar) الأنعام [archive]
↑ Par exemple Le Coran, « La Vache », II [archive], 8 ; (ar) البقرة [archive]
↑ Le Coran, « L’Évènement », LVI [archive] ; (ar) الواقعة [archive]
↑ Le Coran, « Les Hommes », CXIV [archive], 4 ; (ar) الناس [archive]
↑ Le Coran, « L’Homme », LXXVI [archive], 19 ; (ar) الإنسان [archive]
↑ a et b Le Coran, « Noé », LXXI [archive], 23 ; (ar) نوح [archive]
↑ Le Coran, « La Caverne », XVIII [archive], 94 et suivantes ; (ar) الکهف [archive]
↑ Sahîh de Bukharî Livre 55, hadith n°565, (en) [archive] et suivantes
↑ Le Coran, « Hedjr », XV [archive], 99 ; (ar) الحجر [archive]
↑ Le Coran, « La Résurrection », LXXV [archive], 6 ; (ar) القیامة [archive]
↑ Le Coran, « La Famille d’Imran », III [archive], 184 ; (ar) آل عمران [archive]
↑ Par exemple Le Coran, « La Vache », II [archive], 95 ; (ar) البقرة [archive]
↑ Le Coran, « Les Rangs », XXXVII [archive], 62 ; (ar) الصافات [archive] Le Coran, « Le Voyage nocturne », XVII [archive], 60 ; (ar) الإسراء [archive]
↑ Le Coran, « La Plaideuse », LVIII [archive], 2 ; (ar) المجادلة [archive]
Voir aussi[modifier]

Articles connexes[modifier]
Vocabulaire politique arabe
Liens externes[modifier]
Dictionnaire islamique Anglais/Arabe et Arabe/Anglais
Tariq Ramadan, GLOSSAIRE & LEXIQUES, extrait en ligne.
Bibliographie[modifier]
Vocabulaire de l'islam, Janine et Dominique Sourdel, Éditions PUF, "Que sais-je ?", 2008
Dictionnaire historique de l'islam, Janine et Dominique Sourdel, Éditions PUF, 2004 (ISBN 978-2-130-54536-1)
Dictionnaire des symboles musulmans, Malek Chebel, Éditions Albin Michel, 1995 (ISBN 978-2-266-12137-0)

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